Introduction to the command-line

Francis Kayiwa

kayiwa@catchyname:~$  whoami
kayiwa
kayiwa@catchyname:~$ env
_=/usr/bin/env
TWITTER=kayiwa
EMAIL=kayiwa@pobox.com
PRESENTATION_NAME="Introduction to the command-line"
Code_of_conduct="http://code4libnys.github.io/2016/"
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ passwd
Changing password for dritchie.
(current) UNIX password:

getting in and out

passwd

online help

man
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ man -k spell
aspell-autobuildhash (8) - Autobuilding aspell hash files for some dicts.
...
ispell-wrapper (1)    - smart wrapper for ispell
man 1 ispell-wrapper
ISPELL-WRAPPER(1)                                                                             ISPELL-WRAPPER(1)

NAME
       ispell-wrapper - smart wrapper for ispell

SYNOPSIS
        ispell-wrapper [--emacs=name] [--language=regexp] [--dry-run] [ispell options] file
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ man man

MAN(1)                                         Manual pager utils                                        MAN(1)



NAME
       man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals

SYNOPSIS
       man  [-C  file]  [-d] [-D] [--warnings[=warnings]] [-R encoding] [-L locale] [-m system[,...]] [-M path]
       [-S list] [-e extension] [-i|-I]  [--regex|--wildcard]  [--names-only]  [-a]  [-u]  [--no-subpages]  [-P
       pager]  [-r  prompt]  [-7]  [-E  encoding]  [--no-hyphenation]  [--no-justification]  [-p  string]  [-t]
       [-T[device]] [-H[browser]] [-X[dpi]] [-Z] [[section] page ...] ...
       man -k [apropos options] regexp ...
man
help
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ <command> -h

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ <command> --help

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ ispell-wrapper -h
Usage: ispell [-dfile | -pfile | -wchars | -Wn | -t | -n | -H | -x | -b | -S | -B | -C | -P | -m | -Lcontext | -M | -N | -Ttype | -ktype kws | -Fpgm | -V] file .....
       ispell [-dfile | -pfile | -wchars | -Wn | -t | -n | -H | -Ttype | -ktype kws | -Fpgm] -l
       ispell [-dfile | -pfile | -ffile | -Wn | -t | -n | -H | -B | -C | -P | -m | -Ttype | -ktype kws | -Fpgm] [-a | -A]
       ispell [-dfile] [-wchars | -Wn] -c
       ispell [-dfile] [-wchars] -e[1-4]
       ispell [-dfile] [-wchars] -D
       ispell -v
Whenever a word is found that is not in the dictionary,
it is printed on the first line of the screen.  If the dictionary
contains any similar words, they are listed with a number
next to each one.  You have the option of replacing the word
completely, or choosing one of the suggested words.
apropos
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ apropos "text editor"

Exercises

1. Use the online manual to find which command line editors are available
2. Use the online manual to find out how to list files

Files and directories

pwd
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ pwd
/home/dritchie

Files and directories

ls
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ ls --help

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ ls -l

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ ls -a

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ ls -latg

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ ls -hitlar

Files and directories

cat, more, less
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cat /etc/motd

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ more /etc/motd

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ less /etc/motd

Files and Directories

cp

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ man cp

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ ls

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cp cli_workshop/data_files/22631-0.txt .

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ ls

Files and Directories

mv
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ mv 22631-0.txt timbuctoo.txt

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ timbuctoo.txt Desktop/timbuctoo.txt

Files and Directories

rm
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ touch new_file_to_purge.txt

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ ls


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ rm -i new_file_to_purge.txt

Files and Directories

chmod
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ chmod o+w 22631-0.txt

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ chmod g-w 22631-0.txt

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ chmod 700 22631-0.txt

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ chown :belllabs  22631-0.txt

Files and Directories

cd, mkdir, pwd
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cd

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cd /usr/bin

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cd ~/Desktop

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ mkdir ~/Desktop/cliworkshop

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ pwd

Exercises

  1. Specify three ways how `dritchie`may go from /usr/bin to his home directory. 
  2. Using the cp command make a copy of the 22361-0.txt to the /tmp directory
  3. Instead of using the rm command how can `dritchie` move the 22361-0.txt file to the /tmp directory
  4. How can `dritchie` change the permission on the 22361-0.txt file so anyone can read it?
  5. How can dritchie make his Desktop directory so no one except he can read it?

Editing Files

emacs mg, nano, vim vi

Shell Interface

file redirection
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ sort < cli_workshop/data_files/library-visits.csv > sorted.csv

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ in2csv cli_workshop/data_files/Evidovane-knihovny.xls > converted_file.csv

Shell Interface

pipes
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ sort --help | less


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ in2csv --help | less

Shell Interface

alias
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ alias whereami='ls al && pwd'


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ alias please='sudo'


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ alias md='mkdir -p'

Exercises

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ w

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ who

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ ls

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ !1

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cd /tmp

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ !3

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ !c

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ !w

1. If a user logs into a Unix system and types the following input to the shell, list the commands executed by the shell for each of the history substitutions:

Misc. Unix Commands

echo
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ echo print this line of text to standard output


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ echo -n print this line with the flag

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ echo --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ echo -e "1,a\n2,b\n3,c" > file.csv


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ sudo echo "docnow ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL" >> /etc/sudoers

Misc. Unix Commands

who
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ who

Misc. Unix Commands

date
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ date --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ date 


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ date --set "4 AUGUST 2016 1:40 PM"

Misc. Unix Commands

cal
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cal --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cal 1999

Misc. Unix Commands

bc
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ bc --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ bc

Misc. Unix Commands

wc
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cat ~/cli_workshop/data_files/names.txt


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ wc --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ wc ~/cli_workshop/data_files/names.txt


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ wc -cw ~/cli_workshop/data_files/names.txt

Misc. Unix Commands

script
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ script
Script started, file is typescript
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ pwd
/home/dritchie
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cal
July 2016
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
                1  2
 3  4  5  6  7  8  9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ echo -e "one\ntwo\nthree" | wc -l
3
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ who
kayiwa   pts/9        2016-07-25 19:37
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ exit
Script done, file is typescript

Misc. Unix Commands

du
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ du --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ du -h ~/Desktop


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ du -sh ~ | sort -n > ~/diskusage

Misc. Unix Commands

sudo
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ sudo --help

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ sudo -l


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ visudo

Unix Filters

sort
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ sort --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ sort -r -k2 ~/cli_workshop/data_files/operatingsystemlist

Unix Filters

tee
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ tee --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ pwd > file

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cat file


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ pwd | tee file.txt

Unix Filters

grep
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ grep --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cat cli_workshop/data_files/operatingsystemlist

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ grep -F BSD cli_workshop/data_files/operatingsystemlist


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ grep -F -v BSD cli_workshop/data_files/operatingsystemlist


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ grep -E '.en+' cli_workshop/data_files/operatingsystemlist


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ grep -E 'll*' cli_workshop/data_files/operatingsystemlist


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ grep -E '[no]' cli_workshop/data_files/operatingsystemlist

Unix Filters

awk
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ awk --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ date


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ date | awk '{print $2 $3}'


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ date | awk '{ print $2" "$3}'


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ who


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ who | awk '{print $1}'

Unix Filters

head
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ head --help

dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cat cli_workshop/data_files/operatingsystemlist


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ head -2 cli_workshop/data_files/operatingsystemlist


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ head -2 cli_workshop/* | cat

Unix Filters

tail
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ tail --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cat cli_workshop/data_files/operatingsystemlist


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ tail -2 cli_workshop/data_files/operatingsystemlist

Unix Filters

cut
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cut --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cat ~/cli_workshop/data_files/cut_example.txt


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cut -c4 ~/cli_workshop/data_files/cut_example.txt


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ cut -c4-6 ~/cli_workshop/data_files/cut_example.txt

Communication and File Archiving

tar
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ tar --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ tar cvpf /tmp/desktop.tar ~/Desktop/

Communication and File Archiving

gzip, zcat, gunzip
dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ gzip --help


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ gzip -c -r ~/Desktop/ > /tmp/desktop.gz


dritchie@cliwkshp:~$ zcat /tmp/desktop.gz | less


Introduction to the command-line

By Francis Kayiwa

Introduction to the command-line

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