Software Freedom Celebration

SMVDU 


Speaker




Parbhat Puri (@parbhat)
Nick: appa
parbhatpuri17@gmail.com
http://parbhat.github.io/
http://www.github.com/parbhat


Software Freedom Day is a worldwide celebration of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). Our goal in this celebration is to educate you about the benefits of using high quality FOSS in education, in government, at home, and in business -- in short, everywhere!


What is Open Source ?





What is Python ?

This is Python....




History










Over six years ago, in December 1989, I was looking for a "hobby" programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas. My office ... would be closed, but I had a home computer, and not much else on my hands. I decided to write an interpreter for the new scripting language I had been thinking about lately: a descendant of ABC that would appeal to Unix/C hackers. I chose Python as a working title for the project, being in a slightly irreverent mood (and a big fan of Monty Python's Flying Circus).
  • Salute this guy : Guino Van Rossum
  • Python conceived in late 1980s
  • Implementation was started in Dec 1989

WHAT IS PYTHON?

  • A dynamic, interpreted, high-level language
  • Does not require declaring the types of variables or parameters or methods
  • Extremely readable
  • Used for solving a really wide range of problems
  • Object-oriented
  • Does not force Object-orientation
  • Has and requires common sense

Who all are using Python?

 

and the list goes on...

Why Python?

  • Used by many companies across the world including Google, Rackspace, Industrial Light and Magic, Flickr and many others.
  • A thriving community of developers and contributors and third party application developers.
  • PyPI (Python Package Index) lists about 33500 third-party software projects*... You name an area, there must be a Python package in it and mostly opensource and free!
  • Interpreted, dynamically typed, clean syntax, very easy to learn.
  • Learn Python in an Afternoon ;) - http://docs.python.org/2/tutorial/




Where ?


Show me the Money ?


  • IT salaries are up
  • Python is top growing skills last year
  • Average starting python programmer salary 440K INR

How to start ?


Hello, world

How it's done with Java and C++


public class HelloWorld {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Hello, World");
    }
} 

#include 
main()
{
    cout << "Hello World!";
    return 0;
} 
 
Requires a LOT more than just common sense.

The Pythonic way

Common sense: When you want to print a string, just print it.

In Python interpreter
 >>> print "Hello, world."

As a script
Open your favorite editor and type
#! /usr/bin/env python
print "Hello, world."
and save it as hello.py. And then execute it from command line as below
$ python hello.py

 Get your feet wet

VARIABLES & DATATYPES

  • Identifiers
  • Keywords
  • Assignments
  • Operators  & Expressions

IDENTIFIERS


identifier ::= (letter|"_") (letter | digit | "_")*letter ::= lowercase | uppercaselowercase ::= "a"..."z"uppercase ::= "A"..."Z"digit ::= "0"..."9"


So, while abc is a valid identifier, 1abc is not :)

KEYWORDS


and        del       from      not     whileas         elif      global    or      withassert     else      if        pass    yieldbreak      except    import    printclass      exec      in        raisecontinue   finally   is        returndef        for       lambda    try

Assignments

In Python, we don't declare what kind of data we want to put in a variable.
 >>> a = 12
>>> b = 23 >>> a + b >>> 35

Examples
Multiple assignments

>>> a, b  = 10, 12>>> print a10>>> print b12

Python is fun

Let's try to swap 2 numbers
# The usual way>>> a = 10>>> b = 20>>> c = b>>> b = a>>> a = c>>> print a, b20 10
# The Pythonic way>>> a, b = 10, 20>>> a, b = b, a>>> print a, b20 10

DATATYPES

# Integer>>> a = 10# Float>>> b = 2.35# String>>> c = "Hello"# List>>> d = [1, 2, 'blah', 3.2]# Dictionary>>> f = {'a': 1, 'b': 2.3, 'c': "foo"}>>> f['b']2.3

Operators


  • Arithmetic: +, -, /, *, %, //
  • Relational: >, <, >=, <=, ==, !=
  • Logical: and, or
  • Shorthand: +=, /=, -=, *=

Arithmetic operators


>>> 2 + 3
5
>>> 23 - 3
20
>>> 22.0 / 12
1.8333333333333333>>> 14 % 32>>> 4.0 // 3
1.0
>>> 4.0 / 3
1.3333333333333333

Logical operators

To do logical AND , OR we use and ,*or* keywords. x and y returns False if x is False else it returns evaluation of y. If x is True, it returns True.

>>> 1 and 4
4
>>> 1 or 4
1
>>> -1 or 4
-1
>>> 0 or 4
4 

Shorthand Operators

x op = expression is the syntax for shorthand operators. It will be evaluated like x = x op expression , Few examples are

>>> a = 12
>>> a += 13
>>> a
25
>>> a /= 3
>>> a
8
>>> a += (26 * 32)
>>> a
840 

Expressions

Expressions are made of operators and operands. An expression is like 2 + 3 .
Generally while writing expressions we put spaces before and after every operator so that the code becomes clearer to read, like
a = 234 * (45 - 56.0 / 34) 
How expressions are evaluated
(6 + 3) - 12 / 3 + 3 * 2 -1
9 - 12 / 3 + 3 * 2 -1
9 - 4 + 3 * 2 - 1
9 - 4 + 6 - 1
5 + 6 - 1
11 - 1
10

Type Conversions


  • float(string) -> float value
  • int(string) -> integer value
  • str(integer) or str(float) -> string representation

>>> a = 8.126768
>>> str(a)
'8.126768' 

If-else , the control flow

if expr1:
    do this
elif expr2:
    do that
...
...
...
else:
   do whatever 
Truth value testing
DO
if x:
    pass 
DON'T
if x == True:
    pass


Functions


Defining a function




def functionname(params):
    statement1
    statement2 


Sum of 2 integers



>>> def sum(a, b):
...     return a + b
>>> res = sum(234234, 34453546464)
>>> res
34453780698L

Local & global variables

#!/usr/bin/env python
def change(b):
    a = 90
    print a
a = 9
print "Before the function call ", a
print "inside change function",
change(a)
print "After the function call ", a 

           The output
$ ./local.py
Before the function call  9
inside change function 90
After the function call  9 


An example for global variable usage
#!/usr/bin/env python
def change(b):
    global a
    a = 90
    print a
a = 9
print "Before the function call ", a
print "inside change function",
change(a)
print "After the function call ", a 

Default argument value


>>> def test(a , b=-99):
...     if a > b:
...         return True
...     else:
...         return False 

>>> test(12, 23)
False
>>> test(12)
True 

Keyword arguments


>>> def func(a, b=5, c=10):
...     print 'a is', a, 'and b is', b, 'and c is', c
...
>>> func(12, 24)
a is 12 and b is 24 and c is 10
>>> func(12, c = 24)
a is 12 and b is 5 and c is 24
>>> func(b=12, c = 24, a = -1)
a is -1 and b is 12 and c is 24 

Guess the output of this ;)
>>> def func(a, b=13, v):
...     print a, b, v
... 






Lists


>>> a = [23, 45, 1, -3434, 43624356, 234] 
# Append
>>> a.append(45)
>>> a
[23, 45, 1, -3434, 43624356, 234, 45] 
# Insert
>>> a.insert(0, 1) # 1 added at the 0th position of the list
>>> a
[1, 23, 45, 1, -3434, 43624356, 234, 45] 
>>> a.insert(0, 111)
>>> a
[111, 1, 23, 45, 1, -3434, 43624356, 234, 45]
# Count the length of the list
>>> a.count(45)
2 

# Remove a element from the list
>>> a.remove(234) 
>>> a
[111, 1, 23, 45, 1, -3434, 43624356, 45] 
# Reverse a list
>>> a.reverse() 
>>> a
[45, 43624356, -3434, 1, 45, 23, 1, 111] 
# Append a list into another list
>>> b = [45, 56, 90]
>>> a.append(b) 
>>> a
[45, 43624356, -3434, 1, 45, 23, 1, 111, [45, 56, 90]]
>>> a[-1]
[45, 56, 90] 
# Extend a into b
>>> a.extend(b) #To add the values of b not the b itself
>>> a
[45, 43624356, -3434, 1, 45, 23, 1, 111, [45, 56, 90], 45, 56, 90]
>>> a[-1]
90 

# Sort a list
>>> a.sort()
>>> a
[-3434, 1, 1, 23, 45, 45, 45, 56, 90, 111, 43624356, [45, 56, 90]] 
# Delete a element in list
>>> del a[-1]
>>> a
[-3434, 1, 1, 23, 45, 45, 45, 56, 90, 111, 43624356] 
# Basic Data Structure
>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> a.append(1)
>>> a
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1]
>>> a.pop(0)
1
>>> a.pop(0)
2
>>> a
[3, 4, 5, 1] 

List Comprehensions


# List Comprehensions 
>>> a = [1, 2, 3]
>>> [x ** 2 for x in a]
[1, 4, 9]
>>> z = [x + 1 for x in [x ** 2 for x in a]]
>>> z
[2, 5, 10]



Looping

While Loop

while condition:
    statement1
    statement2 
>>> n = 0>>> while n < 11:
...     print n
...     n += 1
...
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 

For Loop

>>> a = ['Python', 'is', 'powerful'] 

>>> for x in a:
...     print x,
...
Python is powerful 

>>> range(1, 5)
[1, 2, 3, 4]
>>> range(1, 15, 3)
[1, 4, 7, 10, 13]
>>> range(10)
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
>>> range(10, 1, -2)
[10, 8, 6, 4, 2]

For...else...


>>> for i in range(0, 5):
...     print i
... else:
...     print "Bye bye"
...
0
1
2
3
4
Bye bye



Sets


# Set: Another data-structure with no duplicate items
>>> a = set('abcthabcjwethddda')
>>> a
set(['a', 'c', 'b', 'e', 'd', 'h', 'j', 't', 'w']) 
# Set Operations
>>> a = set('abracadabra')
>>> b = set('alacazam')
>>> a                                  # unique letters in a
set(['a', 'r', 'b', 'c', 'd'])
>>> a - b                              # letters in a but not in b
set(['r', 'd', 'b'])
>>> a | b                              # letters in either a or b
set(['a', 'c', 'r', 'd', 'b', 'm', 'z', 'l'])
>>> a & b                              # letters in both a and b
set(['a', 'c']) 
>>> a ^ b                              # letters in a or b but not both
set(['r', 'd', 'b', 'm', 'z', 'l']) 
>>> a
set(['a', 'c', 'b', 'e', 'd', 'h', 'j', 'q', 't', 'w'])
>>> a.add('p')
>>> a
set(['a', 'c', 'b', 'e', 'd', 'h', 'j', 'q', 'p', 't', 'w']) 





Strings

>>> s = "I am Indian"
>>> s
'I am Indian'
>>> s = 'I am Indian'
>>> s = "Here is a line \
... splitted in two lines"
>>> s
'Here is a line split in two lines'
>>> s = "Here is a line \n split in two lines"
>>> s
'Here is a line \n split in two lines'
>>> print s
Here is a line
split in two lines 
>>> s = """ This is a
... multiline string, so you can
... write many lines"""
>>> print s
This is a
multiline string, so you can
write many lines 

# String Methods
>>> s = "We all love Python" 
>>> s.split(" ")
['We', 'all', 'love', 'Python']
>>> x = "Nishant:is:waiting"
>>> x.split(':')
['Nishant', 'is', 'waiting']
>>> "-".join("GNU/Linux is great".split(" "))
'GNU/Linux-is-great' 
>>> s = "  abc\n "
>>> s.strip()
'abc' 
>>> s = "faulty for a reason"
>>> s.find("for")
7
>>> s.find("fora")
-1 

>>> s.startswith("fa") #To check if the string startswith fa or not True>>> s.endswith("reason") # True 
>>> s = "sayan chowdhury"
>>> s.title()
'Sayan Chowdhury' 
>>> z = s.upper()
>>> z
'SAYAN CHOWDHURY'
>>> z.lower()
'sayan chowdhury'
>>> s = "I am A pRoGraMMer"
>> s.swapcase()
'i AM a PrOgRAmmER'




File-Handling

>>> f = open('foo.txt', 'w') 
>>> f.write("First line") 
>>> f.close() 
>>> f = open('foo.txt', 'r') 
>>> f.readline()
'First line' 
>>> f.readline()
'' 
>>> f = open('foo.txt', 'a') 
>>> f.write('Second line') 
>>> f.close() 
>>> f = open('foo.txt', 'r') 
>>> f.readline()
'First lineSecond line'

>>> f = open('foo.txt', 'a') 
>>> f.write("New line\n") 
>>> f.write("One more new line")
>>> f.close()        
>>> f = open('foo.txt', 'r') 
>>> f.readline()
'First lineSecond lineNew line\n' 
>>> f.readline()
'One more new line'
>>> f.readline()
''
>>> f.close() 
>>> f = open('foo.txt') 
>>> f.readlines()
['First lineSecond lineNew line\n', 'One more new line'] 

>>> f = open('foo.txt', 'w') 
>>> f.writelines(["1\n", "2\n"])
>>> f.close() 
>>> f = open('foo.txt') 
>>> f.readlines()
['1\n', '2\n'] 
>>> f.close()

 

Modules

An example

"""
Bars Module
============
This is an example module with provide different ways to print bars.
"""
def starbar(num):
    """
    Prints a bar with *
    :arg num: Length of the bar
    """
    print '*' * num

def hashbar(num):
    """
    Prints a bar with #
    :arg num: Length of the bar
    """
    print '#' * num

def simplebar(num):
    """
    Prints a bar with -
    :arg num: Length of the bar
    """
    print '-' * num 

>>> import bars>>> bars.hashbar(10)##########

Importing modules


>>> from bars import simplebar, starbar
>>> simplebar(10)
>>> ----------

# NEVER DO THIS>>> from bars import *

Submodules

We can have many submodules inside a module.

mymodule
|-- bars.py
|-- __init__.py
`-- utils.py 


Default modules

help:
>>> help(str) 
os:
>>> import os
>>> os.getpid()
14875
>>> os.getcwd()
'/Users/rtnpro'
>>> os.chdir('/tmp')
>>> os.getcwd()
'/tmp' 

Example

def view_dir(path='.'):
    """
    This function prints all files and directories in the given directory.
    :args path: Path to the directory, default is current directory
    """
    names = os.listdir(path)
    names.sort()
    for name in names:
        print name, 
Using the view_dir() example:
>>> view_dir('/')
.readahead bin boot dev etc home junk lib lib64 lost+found media mnt opt
proc root run sbin srv sys tmp usr var 

Fun exercise

Let's find all Pycon US 2013 videos' download links :)

Are you ready for the challenge?

Solution


from BeautifulSoup import BeautifulSoup 
import requests 
 
url = 'http://pyvideo.org/category/33/pycon-us-2013/files' 
req = requests.get(url) 
data = req.text 
soup = BeautifulSoup(data) 
 
for link in soup.findAll('a', href=True): 
    # if link['href'].startswith(
	#'http://s3.us.archive.org/nextdayvideo/psf/pycon2013/'):
    if link.get('href', '').startswith(
            'http://s3.us.archive.org/nextdayvideo/psf/pycon2013/'): 
        #print link.get('href') 
        print link.get('href').split('?Signature')[0]

Python fun


Check my university result 
--> In just 32 lines of code 

Friend result scrap by enrollment number
--> In just 20 lines of code

Ti zen application 
--> In just 300 lines of code 

Railway site check tickets booked
--> In just 70 lines of code 

Python Fun

Flipkart price change monitor 
--> In just 55 lines of code

Friend want galaxy S near x amount 
--> Wrote it in just 50 lines of code. 

Product reviews
--> Wrote in just 150 lines of code 

Get photos of my friends 
--> Wrote it in just 80 lines of code 

Merged bloggers
--> Wrote in just 70 lines of code 

Python Fun

Script to transfer file from pc to mobile 
--> In just 1 line 
python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8000

Python file downloader 
--> In just 5 line of code 

Cricket live score
--> In just 6 lines of code 

Flipkart check if my product came or not 
--> In just 50 lines of code 

Wanted 50-60 images to test gallery 
--> In just 7 lines of code. 

Links you can use

  • http://pypi.python.org - Python Package Index
  • http://docs.python.org/2/tutorial/ - The “official” Python tutorial
  • http://wiki.python.org/moin/MostPopularPythonProjects - 
  • MostPopularPythonProjects
  • http://www.python.org/community/workshops/ - Python 
  • Conferences and Workshops
  • http://wiki.python.org/moin/ - The Python “MoinMoin” Wiki
  • http://docs.python.org/devguide/ - All about developing Python
  • http://mail.python.org/mailman/listinfo - A list of all Python
  • http://pymbook.readthedocs.org/en/latest/ - Python for you & me
  • http://pythonbooks.revolunet.com/




Thank You

Any questions ?

SFD Python Workshop

By Parbhat Puri

SFD Python Workshop

Python Workshop organised in Software Freedom Day 2014.

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