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Common Disease States

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Myocardial Infarction
(Heart Attack)

  • Occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked
    • Plaque formed in arteries due to buildup of fat, cholesterol, and other substances
    • Portion of the plaque may break off, forming a blood clot
    • Affected heart muscle begins to die
    • If not treated, and severe enough, may lead to cardiac arrest

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Myocardial Infarction
(Heart Attack)

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Symptoms of MI

  • Chest pain
    • Starts in the center of the chest
    • Described as pain, squeezing, pressure
    • May last more than a few minutes or go away and then come back
  • Pain may radiate to other areas
    • Men: down arm, back (between shoulder blades)
    • Women: neck, jaw, headache
    • Shortness of breath
    • Gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea, vomiting, heartburn
    • Sweating

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Treatment of MI

  • Aspirin: prevent clot from becoming bigger
  • Nitroglycerin: reduce workload of the heart
  • Open blockage
    • Thrombolytics: medication that can dissolve clot
    • Angioplasty
    • Bypass surgery (CABG)

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What should I do?

  • Find an adult
  • Call 911
  • Give aspirin, if available
    • One tablet, should be chewed

Prevention

  • Healthy diet and exercise
  • Treat high blood pressure
  • Stop smoking

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    Cerebrovascular Accident
(Stroke)

  • Damage to the brain due to interruption of blood supply
    • Ischemic (87%): Lack of blood due to blockage
      • Thrombosis due to break in plaque or arrhythmia
    • Hemorrhagic (13%): Breakage in blood vessel
      • Hypertension
      • Aneurysm

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Symptoms of CVA

  • Symptoms occur suddenly
    • F.A.S.T.
      • Facial drooping
      • Arm weakness
      • Speech difficulties
      • Time
    • Trouble seeing in one or both eyes
    • Trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance
    • Sudden severe headache with no known cause

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Symptoms of CVA

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Treatment of Stroke

  • Lower blood pressure
  • Ischemic
    • Dissolve clot with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)
      • Must be given within 3 hours
    • Procedure to remove clot
  • Hemorrhagic
    • Surgery to stop bleeding

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What should I do?

  • Make note of the time
  • Find an adult
  • Call 911
  • Do not give aspirin

Prevention

  • Healthy diet and exercise
  • Stop smoking
  • Treat high blood pressure, arrhythmias, diabetes
  • Blood thinners

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Other Cardiovascular Disease

  • Hypertension
    • Systolic: pressure during contraction
    • Diastolic: pressure between beats (filling)
    • Can lead to MI, stroke, heart failure
    • Treatment: diet, exercise, medication
  • Arrhythmia
    • Abnormal heart rhythm
    • Can lead to stroke, MI, cardiac arrest
    • Treatment: medication, ablation, defibrillation

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Cancer

  • Abnormal cell growth that leads to tumor
    • Body does not have ability to repair or stop growth
  • Metastasis: spread to distant site
    • Commonly bone, brain, lung, and liver
    • Leads to patient death
  • Cause: exposure to carcinogen

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Cancer

  • Warning signs: CAUTION
    • Change in blowed or bladder habits
    • A sore that does not heal
    • Unusual bleeding or discharge
    • Thinking or lump
    • Indigestion of difficulty in swallowing
    • Obvious change in wart or mole
    • Nagging cough or hoarseness

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Chemotherapy

  • Works to disrupt cell growth
  • Cannot differentiate between cancerous and healthy cells
  • Side effects
    • Nausea/Vomiting
    • Suppression of immune system
    • Hair loss
    • Mouth sores
    • Fatigue

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Infection

  • Can be caused by bacteria, fungus, or virus
  • Symptoms depend on the location and pathogen but common ones include
    • Fever
    • Chills
    • Body aches
    • GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • Medication (antibiotics)
    • Specific for pathogen involved
    • Need to be taken for full course, try not to skip doses

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Infection

  • Not all bacteria are bad!
    • Normal flora
    • Intestines
  • Prevention
    • Wash hands
    • Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing

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