The Illusion of Speed

Hacking Users' Perception

Elisabeth Engel

@_lizzelo_

10:25

https://unsplash.com/photos/scBTgeG5K5c

typing ...

Andrew II

10:25

Will I survive? 

10:25

The talk starts in 5 minutes and I'm really worried.

got distracted

@_lizzelo_

Distance

Time

Speed  =

time is measurable

https://unsplash.com/photos/p3Pj7jOYvnM

Imagine your own website

@_lizzelo_

What to do?

Be fast

Objective

=> Website Performance

@_lizzelo_

humans perceive time subjectively

https://www.flickr.com/photos/blakespot/46706560791

Which one is the fastest?

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Sure?

Option 3

Option 2

Option 1

Weber-Fechner Law

Just Noticeable Difference: +/- 20%

8 sec

10 sec

12 sec

imperceptible

Steve Seow

@_lizzelo_

What to do?

Be fast

Objective

Perception

Guide & Entertain

=> Website Performance

@_lizzelo_

https://unsplash.com/photos/nwWUBsW6ud4

Waiting

Active

Richard Larson, MIT

Overestimated by 36 %

Passive

1 second to transition

Nielson Norman Group

@_lizzelo_

How to stay active?

@_lizzelo_

Animate Transition

https://www.pinterest.de/pin/91760911136468054/

tell a story

https://unsplash.com/photos/9pw4TKvT3po

https://www.giantbomb.com/age-of-empires-ii-the-age-of-kings/3030-2846/

https://www.pugetsystems.com/labs/support-software/How-to-Install-Windows-XP-36/

Progress Indicators

puts users in passive state

@_lizzelo_

Spinner

https://loading.io/spinner/

easy & honest

http://mercury.io/blog/the-psychology-of-waiting-loading-animations-and-facebook

Progress Bar

http://assets.eli.wtf/talks/perceived-perf-2018/demos/progress.html

Which one feels fastest?

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Progress Bar

http://assets.eli.wtf/talks/perceived-perf-2018/demos/progress.html

Carnegie Mellon

Chris Harison, Zhiquan Yeo, Scott E. Hudson

feels 12 % faster!

Option 3

Option 2

Option 1

https://www.waitamoment.co.uk/museums-monuments/walt-disney-world/walt-disney-world-crowds

Getting faster at the end

https://www.codeproject.com/Articles/1185064/Remote-File-System-viewing-and-file-transfer-using

you are inaccurate

https://xkcd.com/612/

The best progress bar is

no progress bar.

Luke Wroblewski

@_lizzelo_

Timewise

instant

immediate

kissmetrics

mental context switch

joy gets lost

5 sec

8.25 - 10 sec

1 sec

0.2 sec

Jakob Nielsen

@_lizzelo_

Rule of Thumb

3 sec

8.25 - 10 sec

1 sec

Transition

Spinner

Progress Bar

?

@_lizzelo_

Worst Case

@_lizzelo_

Come back to the user

when it's ready

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.

Arthur C. Clarke

@_lizzelo_

https://vimeo.com/3957551

Preemptive Start

Active

Passive

Not aware

perceived by the user

@_lizzelo_

Predict the future

user clicks

start loading

mousedown

hover

mouse

decelleration

Predict the future

https://github.com/SamKnows/futurelink

Early Completion

Active

Passive

Not aware

perceived by the user

Don't mind

🎉

@_lizzelo_

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lc_APy75e6o

What you see...

http://pishpeshuk.co.il/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/instagram-lie-photos-crop-slowlife-chompoo-baritone-fb.jpg

The truth...

Normal CSS

integration via link tag

<html>
  <head>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css">
  </head>
  <body>
    <header>
      [NAVIGATION]
    </header>
    ...

  </body>
</html>
    

Inline CSS

for above-the-fold content

<html>
  <head>
   <style>
      [INLINE CSS]
    </style>
  </head>
  <body>
    <header>
      [NAVIGATION]
    </header>
    ...
    <script>
        [MAGIC SCRIPT TO LOAD FULL CSS]
    </script>
    <noscript>
      <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css">
    </noscript>
  </body>
</html>
    

Inline CSS

for above-the-fold content

https://www.sitelocity.com/critical-path-css-generator

Inline CSS

for above-the-fold content

<style>@font-face{font-family:'Lato';src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Bold.eot);src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Bold.eot?#iefix) format("embedded-opentype"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Bold.woff2) format("woff2"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Bold.woff) format("woff"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Bold.ttf) format("truetype");font-style:normal;font-weight:600;text-rendering:optimizeLegibility}@font-face{font-family:'Lato';src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Black.eot);src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Black.eot?#iefix) format("embedded-opentype"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Black.woff2) format("woff2"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Black.woff) format("woff"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Black.ttf) format("truetype");font-style:normal;font-weight:900;text-rendering:optimizeLegibility}@font-face{font-family:'Lato';src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Regular.eot);src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Regular.eot?#iefix) format("embedded-opentype"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Regular.woff2) format("woff2"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Regular.woff) format("woff"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Regular.ttf) format("truetype");font-style:normal;font-weight:400;text-rendering:optimizeLegibility}@font-face{font-family:'Lato';src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Italic.eot);src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Italic.eot?#iefix) format("embedded-opentype"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Italic.woff2) format("woff2"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Italic.woff) format("woff"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Italic.ttf) format("truetype");font-style:italic;font-weight:400;text-rendering:optimizeLegibility}*{margin:0;padding:0;border:none;outline:none;list-style:none;text-decoration:none;background-repeat:no-repeat;box-sizing:border-box}html{font-size:10px;height:100%}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){html{font-size:8px}}body{font-family:'Lato',sans-serif;line-height:1.5;font-weight:400;background:white;width:100%;height:100%;text-align:center}.app_header{width:100%;height:80px;position:relative;max-width:1280px;margin:0 auto;text-align:left}.app_header .app_logo{display:block;width:200px;position:absolute;left:20px;top:22px}.app_header .app_logo a{width:100%;display:block;width:auto;position:relative;padding-top:11.8%;background-image:url(/assets/logo-c48a8c5d0d50eb87f6b1a99bb53959f3eaf46475e42d3cc236db4a8898a54de6.svg);background-size:100%}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){.app_header .app_logo{left:15px}}.app_header .nav_main{padding-top:20px;font-size:16px;line-height:40px;text-align:center;height:80px;width:100%}.app_header .nav_main ul{width:100%}.app_header .nav_main ul li{display:inline-block;padding:0 8px}.app_header .nav_main ul li a{color:#111;display:block;font-weight:600;border-bottom:4px solid white}.app_header .lang{position:absolute;right:20px;top:20px;background:rgba(0,0,0,.3);border-radius:20px}.app_header .lang li{display:inline-block;border-radius:20px}.app_header .lang li a{color:white}.app_header .lang li.active{background:#28C8FF}.app_header .lang li+li{margin-left:-3px}.app_header .lang a{font-size:14px;font-weight:600;display:block;height:40px;width:40px;line-height:40px;text-align:center;color:#111}@media only screen and (max-width:1070px){.app_header .nav_main{padding-top:60px;padding-left:7px;text-align:left}}@media only screen and (max-width:990px){.app_header{height:80px}.app_header .app_logo{width:160px}}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){.app_header{height:80px}.app_header .lang{top:14px}.app_header .nav_main{font-size:3vw}}main{text-align:center;font-size:1.6rem;padding:40px 0 0 0;min-height:100%;max-width:100%}main h1{font-size:4rem;text-align:center;margin:2rem 0 1rem 0;line-height:1.1;font-family:'Lato',sans-serif;font-weight:900}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){main h1{font-size:3rem;margin-top:2rem}}main h2{font-size:2.8rem;text-align:center;margin:1rem 0 2rem 0;line-height:1.1;font-family:'Lato',sans-serif;font-weight:900}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){main h2{font-size:2rem;margin-top:2rem}}main p.subtitle{text-align:center;font-size:2rem}main section{width:100%;max-width:720px;margin:0 auto;text-align:left;padding:0 20px}main section.section--wider{max-width:800px}main ul,main p{margin-bottom:1em}main strong{font-weight:600}.color.one{color:#28C8FF}ul#service-list{overflow:hidden;background-image:url(/assets/circle-a14b0fcaa734d509df6143b83fc36136d5a7ae91432b8c0565e1f584e645393c.svg);background-position:50% 50%;margin:40px 0 0 0;max-width:800px}ul#service-list li{float:left;width:50%}ul#service-list li h2{margin:0 0 4px 0;white-space:nowrap;font-size:2rem;padding:3px 0 0 0}ul#service-list li:nth-child(1){text-align:right;padding-right:110px}ul#service-list li:nth-child(1) h2{text-align:right}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){ul#service-list{background-position:50% 0;background-size:50% auto;padding-top:50vw;margin-left:10px;margin-right:10px}ul#service-list li{padding:0 10px 0 0!important;text-align:left!important}ul#service-list li h2{text-align:left!important}}.founder-quote{max-width:1040px;margin-bottom:40px;margin-top:80px}.founder-quote:before,.founder-quote:after{background-repeat:no-repeat;background-image:url(/assets/hr-508d753dbaf65d35fdfc0d227e29072b08e4e9ca17cc0e0f2814f79164da34b6.svg);background-size:106px auto;background-position:50% 55%;content:'';display:block;height:60px}.founder-quote__quote{color:#28A2FF;font-size:2.6rem;line-height:1.3;padding:0 16px 32px 16px;margin:0}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){.founder-quote__quote{margin-left:10px;margin-right:10px}.founder-quote__quote br{display:none}}.founder-quote__cite{display:-webkit-box;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-box-orient:horizontal;-webkit-box-direction:normal;-ms-flex-direction:row;flex-direction:row;-webkit-box-pack:center;-ms-flex-pack:center;justify-content:center;-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center}.founder-quote__founders{text-align:center;min-width:292px}.founder-quote__team{-webkit-box-flex:1;-ms-flex:1 1 50%;flex:1 1 50%;padding:6px 6px 24px 6px}.founder-quote__team--left{text-align:right}.founder-quote__team--right{text-align:left}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){.founder-quote__team{display:none}}.founder-quote__team-member{display:inline-block}.founder-quote__team-member-image{border-radius:35px;width:70px;height:70px;border:1px solid #eee}@media only screen and (max-width:990px){.founder-quote__team-member-image{border-radius:25px;width:50px;height:50px}}.founder-quote__image{background-image:url(/assets/founders-75272c2285fd183b3dd37e6788070d66861b79e3da0208a0bdc960146f5a8049.png);background-size:292px 160px;background-position:50% 0%;height:160px}.founder-quote__signatures{text-indent:-999em;background-image:url(/assets/founders-c34f2eed2664c511b6ab837bce70f01b13dc27931166466185c499daf84d03a5.svg);background-size:292px 47px;background-position:50% 0%;height:47px;margin-top:-16px;margin-bottom:-5px}.founder-quote__position{font-style:italic;font-size:1.2rem}.action_index .app_header{z-index:4}.action_index main{overflow:auto;margin-top:-80px}.action_index main #service-list{margin-bottom:40px;margin-top:20px}.action_index main section:not(.primary){padding:20px 0}</style>
    

Inline CSS

inline.css -> compiled into your HTML

@import "logo-inline";
@import "navigation-inline";
@import "searchbar-inline";
@import "top-content-inline";
    

normal.css -> loaded at the end of the HTML

@import "[everything-else]";
@import "footer";
    

Inline CSS

for above-the-fold content

https://slides.com/franklin_35/page-speeder#/

Inline CSS

for above-the-fold content

https://slides.com/franklin_35/page-speeder/

https://www.tandemseven.com/blog/how-to-use-disneys-principles-of-animation-to-improve-ux/

https://www.tandemseven.com/blog/how-to-use-disneys-principles-of-animation-to-improve-ux/

https://www.tandemseven.com/blog/how-to-use-disneys-principles-of-animation-to-improve-ux/

Skeleton Loading

HTML

<section>

  <skeleton-content>
    [ SKELETON ]
  </skeleton-content>

  <real-content style="display:none">
    [ REAL CONTENT ]
  </real-content>

</section>
    

Skeleton Loading

CSS


  @keyframes skeletonLoading {
    
    0%   {opacity: 0.5}
    50%  {opacity: 1}
    100% {opacity: 0.5}
  }

  skeleton-content .bar {
    display: block;
    width: 50rem;
    height: 5rem;
    animation: skeletonLoading 2s infinite;
    background-color: lightgrey;
  }

Skeleton Loading

Result

@_lizzelo_

https://www.youtube.com

optimize optimistically

https://unsplash.com/photos/Xbh_OGLRfUM

Optimistic UI

deceptive feedback

@_lizzelo_

Optimistic UI

@_lizzelo_

The ball was sooo fast, I didn't even see it.

Me - playing football table

@_lizzelo_

Change Blindness

http://www.syntagm.co.uk/design/articles/cb.htm

Mind the Context

@_lizzelo_

5 sec. to boot my computer

https://unsplash.com/photos/tYvUNvcGa-c

Too Slow

5 sec. to cook a chili con carne

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Bowl_of_chili.jpg

TooFast

https://www.moneypeach.com/free-use-coin-machines-near-me/

Fast = Easy = Cheap

@_lizzelo_

Longer wait times can build up:

 

Anticipation!

...

...

...

@_lizzelo_

TL;DL

Be fast

Objective

Perception

Guide & Entertain

Explain

Anticipation

@_lizzelo_

STL;DL

Illusion of Speed

=

f(Expectation, Reality, Perception)

@_lizzelo_

online

Andrew II

10:25

Will I survive? 

10:35

You will, no worries.

10:38

And if not, you have my number.

11:05

Oh no, wait. If not, enjoy heaven!

10:25

The talk starts in 5 minutes and I'm really worried.

Who are we

at the end?

@_lizzelo_

we are care takers

https://unsplash.com/photos/sAabA4Z8OfU

❤️

❤️

F1

Experiences?

Questions?

Remarks?

Recommedations?

Thanks to the Team

Slides:

@_lizzelo_

engel@interfacewerk.de

slides.com/elisabethengel/illusion-of-speed

Contact:

Content

  • http://cloudcannon.com/deconstructions/2014/11/15/facebook-content-placeholder-deconstruction.html
  • https://www.sitepoint.com/how-to-speed-up-your-ux-with-skeleton-screens/
  • http://dev.mobify.com/blog/beginners-guide-to-perceived-performance/
  • http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1797
  • http://codepen.io/Mestika/pen/ByNYBa
  • http://codepen.io/basham/pen/cGJjn
  • http://codepen.io/oslego/pen/XdvWmd

Code

More

Credits

interfacewerk GmbH

gutefrage.net GmbH

 

Benjamin Jentsch

Sebastian Ullherr