AI is “the study of devices that perceive their environment and define a course of action that will maximise its chance of achieving a given goal” (World Wide Web Foundation, 2017).
Instead of giving computers step-by-step instructions to solve a problem, the human programmer gives the computer instructions and rules to learn from the data provided. Based on inferences gained from the data, the computer then generates new rules to provide information and services. (Internet Society, 2017)
Creator: Zen Pencils
include: the rights to health, education, social security, proper labour conditions, quality of life, and participation in cultural life and creative activities.
such as the right to life and self-determination, as well as individual freedoms of expression, religion, association, assembly, and so on.
These rights are often considered as positive rights, which require action to fulfil (such as providing opportunities for decent work).
Protecting civil and political rights require inaction (such as not restricting freedom of expression).
Example: Covid-19, right to health
(Source: The Guardian)
(Source: New York Times)
Your perspective on data surveillance differs, if you're looking at
The ASEAN Smart Cities Network is a platform for 26 cities across ASEAN to work together towards the common goal of smart and sustainable urbanisation.
AI Government Readiness Index by Oxford Insights ranks country readiness for AI by four high-level clusters: governance; infrastructure and data; skills and education; and government and public services.
Singapore ranks as #1 and Timor Leste as #173.
|Country (World Ranking)||Score|
|Brunei Darussalam (121)||~3.143|
|Timor Leste (173)||
(Source: Oxford Insights, 2019)
For example, only Indonesia and Philippines in Southeast Asia have adopted the Open Data Charter (as part of 30 governments in the world).
In 2017, the Open Data Barometer scored Philippines at 42 and Indonesia at 37 in their publishing and usage of open data for accountability, innovation and social impact.
(Source: Open Data Barometer, country report of Philippines)
Image source: New Straits Times
Most countries within the region use two or more types of surveillance technologies in the form of smart/safe city implementations, facial recognition, and smart policing; and all of these countries use technologies imported from China, and to a lesser extent from the US as well.
Adapted from: AI Global Surveillance Index (AIGS 2019)
(with no data on Brunei, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Timor Leste)
Source: New Mandala, 2019
Image source: VisualCapitalist.com
"In a future where public policy and the marketplace will be shaped significantly by big data and the predictions it makes possible, the exclusion of poor and marginalized people has troubling implications: for economic opportunity, for social mobility, and even for equal citizenship. These technologies have the potential to create a new form of voicelessness, one in which the preferences and behaviors of poor and otherwise marginalized people receive little or no consideration when companies and governments make decisions, both large and small, about how public institutions and the marketplace should evolve." (Lerman, 2013)
Source: (Freedom House, 2019)