A tutoring approach that...
(Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976, p. 90)
“enables a child or novice to solve a problem, carry out a task or achieve a goal which would be beyond his unassisted efforts...It may result, eventually, in development of task competence by the learner at a pace that would far outstrip his unassisted efforts.”
In our context, scaffolding focuses on supporting learners (UG students) as they develop a variety of research skills.
This can involve:
"The scaffolding metaphor supposes a predefined system of goals and leaves little space for a [learner's] creativity" (Shvarts & Bakker, 2019, p.2).
MAKING CONCEPTS EXPLICIT THROUGH INTERACTION AND ACTIVITY
What is the library doing to address these issues?
Busari, Stephanie. “Stefanie Busari: How Fake News Does Real Harm.” YouTube, uploaded by TED, 18 May 2017 www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwVYaY39YbQ.
Activity: Students view a brief TedTalk and consider what the speaker is saying (summary) as well as why they might be saying it (action).
Activity: Create a series of citation examples using a polling tool, and encourage students to identify the option they would be most likely to use/recommend in a brief case study.
Julian: "Is the bank open on Saturdays?"
Getting around the world means you have to trust people. The question is how much trust you should give and why. This depends on context.
Julian: "How do you know??"
Me: "I was there last year, I think."
Julian: "Do you actually know? If I don't make a payment, I'll lose my apartment"
Me: "Oh...I don't actually know. Let's check online."
Julian: "Looks like a blizzard out. Are classes cancelled?"
Julian: "How do you know??"
Me: "I looked out the window."
Me: "I checked the university homepage."
I'M CITING SOMETHING
Following the citation game gives you some abilities by allowing for certain moves:
Duty/Obligation: 2-way obligation. If you take others' ideas seriously (by citing them), then people will take your ideas seriously.
Licence: Like a license to drive, but this is a license to put an idea forward/critique an idea. This license comes in different strengths. This strength is directly tied to the strength of the idea you are citing and how you explain it.
Legitimacy: How seriously people will take your claims depends on how well you use your licenses. The better (and more) connections you have to other ideas, the more likely people will take your ideas seriously.
1. Requires more classroom time (and potentially more assignments/grading), and therefore, is dependent on instructors' support/trust.
2. The literature is not always supportive of scaffolding's effectiveness, especially in regards to research-specific tasks, which are rarely mentioned.
3. Some librarians may feel that certain aspects of instruction (i.e. discussing reading/note taking) falls outside of our roles/responsibilities.
By leveraging approaches that build off of social communication, HS can generate a strong feeling of community with both students and faculty.
HS develops critical knowledge of how information is generated contextually.
Brandom, R. (1994). Making it explicit: Reasoning, representing, and discursive commitment. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Bratman, M. (2014). Shared agency: A planning theory of acting together. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Cortes-Vera, J., Garcia, T. J., & Gutierrez, A. (2017). Knowing and improving paraphrasing skills of Mexican college students. Information and Learning Science, 118(9/10), 490–502. https://doi.org/10.1108/ILS-05-2017-0042
Davidson, D. (2001). On the very notion of a conceptual scheme. In Inquiries into truth and interpretation (2nd ed., pp.183-198). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1974). Brandom
Fricker, M. (2007). Epistemic injustice: power and the ethics of knowing. Oxford , UK: Oxford University Press.
Greer, K., Swanberg, S., Hristova, M., Switzer, A. T., Daniel, D., & Perdue, S. W. (2012). Beyond the web tutorial: Development and implementation of an online, self-directed academic integrity course at Oakland University. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(5), 251–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2012.06.010
MacMillan, M., & Rosenblatt, S. (2015). They’ve found it. Can they read it? Adding academic reading strategies to your IL toolkit. In D.M. Mueller (Ed.), ACRL 2015 Proceedings (pp. 757-762). Chicago, IL. Association of College and Research Libraries, a division of the American Library Association.
Martin, C. (2011) An information literacy perspective on learning and new media. On the Horizon, 19(4), 268-275. https://doi-org.uml.idm.oclc.org/10.1108/10748121111179394
Sellars, W. (1997). Empiricism and the philosophy of mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1956).
Shvarts, A., & Bakker, A. (2019). The early history of the scaffolding metaphor: Bernstein, Luria, Vygotsky, and before. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/10749039.2019.1574306
Tomasello, M. (2014). A natural history of human thinking. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tomasello, M. (2019). Becoming human: A theory of ontogeny. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17(2), 89–100. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1976.tb00381.x