How do we understand what is right or wrong? Abstract questioning about value-bearing things: "Is murder ever permissible?"
Determines standards of the rightness or wrongness of actions: "If I am attacked with deadly force, deadly retaliation is permissible."
Determines practical application of moral considerations. "In a case of murder, first degree is X and second degree is Y"
“I left Belize when I was 12 or 13, just as all my friends were getting swept up into gangs. ...After I came to America, they were all killed...” Photo by Brandon Stanton, HONY.
You can edit an image destined for an art gallery, but not for a documentary
normative ethics of image creation
violates integrity of image and entirely changes its meaning
violates subject's autonomy and intent
violates empathetical restraints via racial pandering, especially pre-trial
violates context - the image looks better but the edits are inappropriate for a documentary
Does the end justify the means?
violates subject's autonomy, but photographer was on the receiving end of a war, and the course of the war was changed because of this photo
source: Thomson Foundation
images: Austin Neill, Savannah Dodd
You have been hired to take photographs of a beach to promote tourism, but the beach is littered with plastic waste. What do you do?
A: Take well-framed pictures that represent the beach accurately and do basic editing to make the scene more vivid, but leave the rubbish
B: Clean up a small area and photograph at an angle so that no litter is visible in the frame
C. Digitally edit away the rubbish so that it looks more inviting
You are on a small boat tour on a river. You are impressed by the paddling technique of the person hired to steer your boat, and you want to take photographs of her. What do you do?
A. You ask her if you can take photographs.
B. You take a few photographs without asking. You show her the images you took, and ask her if you can take more. You offer to send her a few if she likes them.
C. You take photographs without asking. This boat tour is a tourist attraction, so surely it is appropriate to photograph her.
normative ethics of image consumption
maybe stick to cute animals
images taken out of context for fun
altered and cropped
posted without consent
(is it ok to dress them up?)
premise: because bias in the training of data imagesets creates flawed outcomes, we need to remove bias
algorithmic 'risk assessment'
premise: most images are scraped from the internet into datasets without consent, so their use must be carefully controlled
premise: with new technology, videos can be convincingly faked - maybe it should should be illegal
Deepfakes are totally unethical - violating all the norms of empathy, autonomy, and integrity
premise: art - real art - is starting to be created by ML algorithms. It's coming on the market and needs to be valuated.
by a Generative Adversarial Network, sold for $423,500 at Christie's
2 NNs: a generator that synthesizes new samples from scratch, and a discriminator that takes samples from both the training data and the generator’s output and predicts if they are “real” or “fake”.
or just a mashup?
Should we be worried?
What if museums come under pressure to sell off their permanent collection in favor of this new 'modern art'
When does it evolve from mashup to creatively-generated art?
What if this just proves that modern art is 'great bosh'
premise: 'beautifying' technology that alters images should be monitored as it comes with serious social consequences.
Meitu Makeup apps
"Makeup apps lead us to question our worth, then sell us a filter to fix it"
in France, retouched photos must be marked as such