Go, Docker & HashiCorp

2014/04/25

About Me

Software Engineer

Backend/DevOps

http://liubin.org

Source Code

https://github.com/liubin/workshop-China-pub

VirtualBox & Vagrant needed.

Golang

mascot from: https://github.com/golang-samples/gopher-vector

Interface

Simple & Pragmatic

Cross Compile

Single executable file

Goroutine

Docker

Develop, Ship and Run Any Application, Anywhere

History & background

cloud(PaaS/IaaS)

dotCloud

Docker is not virtualization

Docker = Go + Linux Kernel

Linux Kernel

NameSpace

CGroup

Union file systems

execdriver

  • lxc
  • native(libcontainer)

graphdriver

  • aufs
  • btrfs
  • devmapper
  • vfs

Docker

start from container but not only container now.

a platform of build, ship and run software

Docker platform

=

Hub + Engine

Docker's Architecture 1

  • Daemon
  • Client
  • Remote API

Docker's Architecture 2

  • Docker registries.
  • Docker images.
  • Docker containers.

Docker Registries

Docker registries hold images.
Docker registries are the distribution component of Docker.

Docker Images

A Docker image is a read-only template.
Docker images are the build component of Docker.

Docker Containers

Docker containers are similar to a directory + process(es).
Created from a Docker image.
Docker containers are the run component of Docker.

Docker Image                     Docker Container
------------->
<-------------

docker run

docker commit

Example 1

$ sudo docker run -it centos:centos7 bash
[root@e8f2d409dd27 /]# id
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root)
[root@e8f2d409dd27 /]# ps -ef
UID        PID  PPID  C STIME TTY          TIME CMD
root         1     0  0 16:12 ?        00:00:00 bash
root        19     1  0 16:12 ?        00:00:00 ps -ef

docker run [options] image [args]

docker run options

-p : port mapping

-v : volume

-i : interactive

-t : tty

-d : daemon

--name : naming container

--restart : --restart=on-failure:5

--rm : auto remove container

--link : link other containers

$ sudo docker run --name -d redis redis:3

$ sudo docker run --link redis:cache -it centos:centos7 bash

[root@964115430b85 /]# env
HOSTNAME=964115430b85
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin
PWD=/
container_uuid=96411543-0b85-e2fb-0ac5-a7a0e0bc3c86
HOME=/root
LESSOPEN=||/usr/bin/lesspipe.sh %s

CACHE_ENV_REDIS_DOWNLOAD_SHA1=c75fd32900187a7c9f9d07c412ea3b3315691c65
CACHE_PORT_6379_TCP_PORT=6379
CACHE_PORT_6379_TCP_PROTO=tcp
CACHE_PORT=tcp://172.17.0.12:6379
CACHE_ENV_REDIS_DOWNLOAD_URL=http://download.redis.io/releases/redis-3.0.0.tar.gz
CACHE_ENV_REDIS_VERSION=3.0.0
CACHE_NAME=/pensive_hodgkin/cache
CACHE_PORT_6379_TCP_ADDR=172.17.0.12
CACHE_PORT_6379_TCP=tcp://172.17.0.12:6379

# cat /etc/hosts
172.17.0.14	ccbfe5d5c4cd
127.0.0.1	localhost
... ...
172.17.0.12	cache dac176cba6c5 redis
$ pwd
/workshop

$ sudo docker run -it -v /workshop:/anywhere centos:centos7 bash

[root@5da9af015da5 /]# mount | grep any
none on /anywhere type vboxsf (rw,nodev,relatime)

[root@5da9af015da5 /]# ls /anywhere/
LICENSE  README.md  Vagrantfile  example-2  example-3  example-4  example-5

[root@5da9af015da5 /]# 

docker ps

docker ps

docker ps -a

docker ps -l

docker ps -q

$ sudo docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                                                                     COMMAND                CREATED              STATUS                     PORTS               NAMES
e8f2d409dd27        centos:centos7                                                            "bash"                 About a minute ago   Exited (0) 9 seconds ago                       jovial_morse        
fb4ea58880d2        540c9254ff330bcc1a56f415f92139737de47e8747da59f5b96668910a0a8366:latest   "/bin/sh -c 'yum ins   6 minutes ago        Up 6 minutes                                   nostalgic_banach    
[vagrant@localhost ~]$ sudo docker ps -l
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                                                                     COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
4af352f7616a        3b527bcfe2d682b873b504f9b5dfc924529d9e34d51ebfc59379b0fe5a0fcf10:latest   "/bin/sh -c 'cd /tmp   2 minutes ago       Up 2 minutes                            romantic_wilson     
[vagrant@localhost ~]$ sudo docker ps -l -q
4af352f7616a

docker stop/restart

docker start/restart

docker stop/kill/rm

docker log [-f|t]

docker exec

docker inspect

Docker Image

docker images

$ sudo docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             VIRTUAL SIZE
ruby-redis-app      latest              4a8926e70ba2        11 minutes ago      577.3 MB
ruby-app            latest              a508fb5d4c30        17 minutes ago      568 MB
ruby                latest              66b9f2758422        21 minutes ago      556.4 MB
docker.io/redis     3                   06a1f75304ba        2 days ago          111 MB
docker.io/redis     3.0                 06a1f75304ba        2 days ago          111 MB
docker.io/redis     3.0.0               06a1f75304ba        2 days ago          111 MB
docker.io/redis     latest              06a1f75304ba        2 days ago          111 MB
docker.io/centos    latest              fd44297e2ddb        2 days ago          215.7 MB
docker.io/centos    7                   fd44297e2ddb        2 days ago          215.7 MB
docker.io/centos    centos7             fd44297e2ddb        2 days ago          215.7 MB

docker rmi

docker history

$ sudo docker history redis:3
IMAGE               CREATED             CREATED BY                                      SIZE
06a1f75304ba        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) CMD ["redis-server"]          0 B
54ca92b7c8d7        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) EXPOSE 6379/tcp               0 B
6755f61be70b        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) ENTRYPOINT ["/entrypoint.sh   0 B
40980abbab9f        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY file:c4bbead0efd18835c   109 B
e501d0146d1d        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) WORKDIR /data                 0 B
d315f0a01142        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) VOLUME [/data]                0 B
3a8cd27bb3d5        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c mkdir /data && chown redis:redis /   0 B
4454da7c7dbc        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c buildDeps='gcc libc6-dev make';      s                   9.373 MB
7ebc2ece510e        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) ENV REDIS_DOWNLOAD_SHA1=c75   0 B
1c255a1b1254        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) ENV REDIS_DOWNLOAD_URL=http   0 B
130c4eb9410a        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) ENV REDIS_VERSION=3.0.0       0 B
8d9a45a71a91        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c curl -o /usr/local/bin/gosu -SL "h   2.141 MB
c215cb712b89        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c gpg --keyserver pool.sks-keyserver   98.87 kB
b720af9a6508        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c apt-get update                       && apt-get install   14.1 MB
29809ed33dfd        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c groupadd -r redis && useradd -r -g   328.3 kB
b3d362b23ec1        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) CMD ["/bin/bash"]             0 B
21e4345e9035        2 days ago          /bin/sh -c #(nop) ADD file:20cd6318f68d34ca8e   84.96 MB

Build Image

docker commit

Dockerfile

FROM centos:centos7

MAINTAINER Bin Liu <liubin0329@gmail.com>

RUN yum update -y && yum install -y unzip wget

RUN cd /tmp \
  && wget https://dl.bintray.com/mitchellh/serf/0.6.4_linux_amd64.zip

RUN cd /tmp \
  && unzip 0.6.4_linux_amd64.zip \
  && chmod +x serf \
  && mv serf /usr/bin/serf


ADD handler.sh /handler.sh

RUN chmod +x /handler.sh

WORKDIR /

docker build -t imagename .

RUN

instruction granularity

CMD & ENTRYPOINT

ENTRYPOINT ["/usr/sbin/nginx"]

CMD ["-h"]
dockuer run --entrypoint 

Example 2

builde a Ruby runtime

Tips

$ sudo docker rm $(sudo docker ps -a -q)

$ sudo docker inspect --format '{{ .NetworkSettings.IPAddress }}' f007c401f577

$ sudo docker images | grep none | awk '{ print $3 }' | xargs sudo docker rmi

Docker Hub & AutoBuild

Example-3

Dockerizing a Sinatra app

Docker compose

A tool for defining and running multi-container applications by one file and one command.

Example-4

# docker-compose.yml
web:
  build: .
  links:
   - redis
  ports:
   - "4567:4567"
redis:
  image: redis:3

# app.rb
$redis = Redis.new(:host => "redis", :port => 6379)

Docker Machine

Machine is currently in beta

http://docs.docker.com/machine/

It creates servers, installs Docker on them, then configures the Docker client to talk to them.

Docker Swarm

Manager

Node

Scheduler

Discovery

Pluggable Scheduler

 

  • Filter
  • Strategy
  • Constraint
  • Affinity
  • Port
  • Dependency
  • Health

Filter

  • spread
  • binpack
  • random

Strategy

  • Hosted discovery service
  • Static file
  • Etcd
  • Consul
  • Zookeeper
  • IPs(list or range pattern)

Discovery

Orchestration

Docker production pattern

1/n
1/n

credit: http://techlife.cookpad.com/entry/2015/04/20/134758

Use Case

Anywhere

CI/CD

Dev/Prod

PaaS

Delivery

... ...

SOA/Micro service

No installations,

Just docker run

 

HashiCorp

The MOST sexy tools/company

about

DevOps, Docker, Go,

Immutable Infrastructure,
Infrastructure as Code,

-- by bin liu :-)

Vagrant

Development environments made easy

https://www.vagrantup.com/

Create and configure lightweight, reproducible, and portable development environments.

$ vagrant init hashicorp/precise32
$ vagrant up
#!/usr/bin/env bash

apt-get update
apt-get install -y apache2
if ! [ -L /var/www ]; then
  rm -rf /var/www
  ln -fs /vagrant /var/www
fi
Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
  config.vm.box = "hashicorp/precise32"
  config.vm.provision :shell, path: "bootstrap.sh"
end

Provision

Packer

https://www.packer.io/

Packer is a tool for creating identical machine images for multiple platforms from a single source configuration.

Super fast infrastructure deployment.

Multi-provider portability. 

Improved stability.

Greater testability.

Builders

  • Amazon EC2 (AMI)
  • DigitalOcean
  • Docker
  • Google Compute Engine
  • Null
  • OpenStack
  • Parallels
  • QEMU
  • VirtualBox
  • VMware

Provisioners

  • Shell Scripts
  • File Uploads
  • Ansible
  • Chef Client
  • Chef Solo
  • Puppet Masterless
  • Puppet Server
  • SaltBullet Two

Post-processors

  • Atlas
  • compress
  • docker-import
  • docker-push
  • docker-save
  • docker-tag
  • Vagrant
  • Vagrant Cloud
  • vSphere

Serf

https://serfdom.io/

Serf

Serf is a decentralized solution for cluster membership, failure detection, and orchestration.

Serf

  • GOSSIP-BASED
  • FAILURE DETECTION
  • CUSTOM EVENTS

vs ZooKeeper, etcd

  • Client/Server
  • complex, not only a tool
  • heartbeating
  • long failure detection window
  • strongly consistent

Example 5

run Serf in Docker container

Consul

https://consul.io/

Service discovery and configuration made easy. Distributed, highly available, and datacenter-aware.

Service Discovery

Failure Detection

Multi Datacenter

Key/Value Storage

Built-in DNS server

DNS/HTTP interface

Raft

http://thesecretlivesofdata.com/raft

K/V Store

$ curl -X PUT -d 'test' http://localhost:8500/v1/kv/web/key1
true
$ curl -X PUT -d 'test' http://localhost:8500/v1/kv/web/key2?flags=42
true
$ curl -X PUT -d 'test'  http://localhost:8500/v1/kv/web/sub/key3
true
$ curl http://localhost:8500/v1/kv/?recurse
[{"CreateIndex":97,"ModifyIndex":97,"Key":"web/key1","Flags":0,"Value":"dGVzdA=="},
 {"CreateIndex":98,"ModifyIndex":98,"Key":"web/key2","Flags":42,"Value":"dGVzdA=="},
 {"CreateIndex":99,"ModifyIndex":99,"Key":"web/sub/key3","Flags":0,"Value":"dGVzdA=="}]

Services

  • Service Definition

  • HTTP API

Create service

$ echo '{"service": {"name": "web", "tags": ["rails"], "port": 80}}' \
    >/etc/consul.d/web.json

Query services

$ dig @127.0.0.1 -p 8600 web.service.consul SRV
...
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;web.service.consul.    IN  SRV
;; ANSWER SECTION:
web.service.consul. 0   IN  SRV 1 1 80 agent-one.node.dc1.consul.
;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
agent-one.node.dc1.consul. 0    IN  A   172.20.20.11

event, watch, exec

$ consul event deploy 4F5E234

... ...

$ consul watch -type event -name deploy /home/user/deploy.sh

... ...

$ consul exec -service web /home/user/deploy.sh

Terraform

https://terraform.io/

A tool for building, changing, and versioning infrastructure safely and efficiently. 

Infrastructure as Code

Compose IaaS/PaaS/Saas

Unified view

One workflow

Physical to Container

Codes

provider "aws" {
    access_key = "ACCESS_KEY_HERE"
    secret_key = "SECRET_KEY_HERE"
    region = "us-east-1"
}
resource "aws_instance" "example" {
    ami = "ami-408c7f28"
    instance_type = "t1.micro"
}

terraform plan

$ terraform plan
...
+ aws_instance.example
    ami:               "" => "ami-408c7f28"
    availability_zone: "" => "<computed>"
    instance_type:     "" => "t1.micro"
    key_name:          "" => "<computed>"
    private_dns:       "" => "<computed>"
    private_ip:        "" => "<computed>"
    public_dns:        "" => "<computed>"
    public_ip:         "" => "<computed>"
    security_groups:   "" => "<computed>"
    subnet_id:         "" => "<computed>"

terraform apply

$ terraform apply

aws_instance.example: Creating...
  ami:           "" => "ami-408c7f28"
  instance_type: "" => "t1.micro"
Apply complete! Resources: 1 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed.
...

terraform show

$ terraform show
aws_instance.example:
  id = i-e60900cd
  ami = ami-408c7f28
  availability_zone = us-east-1c
  instance_type = t1.micro
  key_name =
  private_dns = domU-12-31-39-12-38-AB.compute-1.internal
  private_ip = 10.200.59.89
  public_dns = ec2-54-81-21-192.compute-1.amazonaws.com
  public_ip = 54.81.21.192
  security_groups.# = 1
  security_groups.0 = default
  subnet_id =

Atlas

https://atlas.hashicorp.com/

404, image not found  :-(

production tested with over 500,000 active users.

(Too Many) Examples

https://github.com/hashicorp/atlas-examples

Tao of HashCorp

  • Workflows, not Technologies
  • Simple, Modular, Composable
  • Communicating Sequential Processes
  • Immutability
  • Versioning through Codification
  • Automation through Codification
  • Resilient systems
  • Pragmatism

Conclusion

Infrastructure as Code & Automation

Workflow

Friendly to Docker

Thanks,

Go & Docker & HashiCorp

By bin liu

Go & Docker & HashiCorp

3rd China-pub readers meet-up

  • 2,115
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