The use of unmanned aerial vehicles as a means of data collection for participatory action research
Britta Ricker, PhD
- Disaster and Data Needs
- Participatory Action Research, the
Geoweband Spatial Media = Communication!
- Demystifying Drone Workflow
- Social Implications
- Conclusions and future work
DIFFERENT Data NeEDS AT EACH PHASE
means to illuminate social and environmental injustices
co-construction of knowledge= Better understanding of HAZARDS?
promotion of self and critical awareness that leads to individual, collective social change
Participatory Action Research
Tell me, I forget.
Show me, I remember.
Involve me, I understand.
-Chinese Proverb (Paulos et al., 2009)
"moment of translation
transforming experiential, testimonial and qualitative forms of knowledge into quantitative aggregated or abstracted forms" (Elwood & Leszczynski , 2012: 548)
interconnected tools and spatial data available on the web spanning multiple geographic regions
Revolutionized spatial data (Sui, 2008)
but not democratizing it (Haklay, 2013)
Provides access to satellite and aerial imagery! (Goodchild, 2007; Harvey, 2014; Kingsbury & Jones, 2009)
Opportunity to contribute Volunteered Geographic Information (Goodchild, 2007)
Maps --> Media
Elwood & Leszczynski (2012) New spatial media, new knowledge politics. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (38): 544-559.
"Mediums or channels that extend our ability to interact with and create geographic information online" p 544
"...knowledge politics to be shaped by deeply institutionalized tendencies in planning and policy making to grant greater weight to knowledge expressed as quantitative data or represented in cartographic forms."
Data Driven Decision Making
(Elwood & Leszczynski, 2012: 545)
"From expert to everyday"
(Elwood & Leszczynski, 2012)
Public Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS)
Maintain a keen awareness as to not reproduce inequalities. Active engagement in effort to use these technologies to combat inequalities (Elwood, 2015)
Medium influences who will participate
Method by which participants identify, represent, and enhance their community through a specific photographic technique
- Identify community assets and deficits
- Use photography to draw attention to a social issue
- Induce change by informing policy makers
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
(Sandvik & Lohne, 2014)
Drones for good
- Emergency response
- Search and Rescue
- Natural resource management
- Remote Sensing
- (Colomina & Molina, 2014; Everaerts, 2008, Forance et al., 2014; Upton et al., 2015; Zhang & Kovacs, 2012; Rokhmana, 2015).
- Digital Humanitarianism
- Conservation Drones
- Drone Code
Taiwan’s National Cheng Kung University created this 3D model from aerial imagery captured by UAV.
Spatial Media: Aerial Photovoice Cinemtography
The Appalachian Mountaintop Patrol (AMP)
Laura grace chipley
- evokes emotion
- representations of place
- What if we used it for something more important?
Digital Maps! Digital Globes offer basemaps for participatory mapping. But they also control temporal and spatial resolution of those basemaps
Putting a UAV in the hands of a community, could they monitor...
- Community changes through the course of a day, season, year...
- Acute changes - landslide event, urban encroachment
- Gradual changes - land use change, urban growth
- Ecosystem services
- Access to water resources, refugee camp movement
- Habitat loss...
Harmful Algal Blooms
Twin Lakes Home Owners Assiciation, Federal Way
Demystify the Workflow
- Drone Selection Process
- Flight Practice and Planning
- Data Processing
(Eisenbeiss, 2011: 34)
Classified by takeoff and landing methods
DJI Phantom 2 Vision Plus
- 25 minute flight time
- Return home when battery is low
- Compass and GPS
- 14 mega pixel camera and Gimble
Flight Practice and Planning
Photography and Cinematography
MapKnitter, Google Maps, MapBox, GeoServer + OpenLayers, ESRI Online
Structure from Motion (SfM) software
Generate an Othophoto
- Bullet One
- Bullet Two
- Bullet Three
77 photos to make an orthophoto, 3D model + more in
> one hour total
Share your data
Similar critiques of GIS
and mobile spatial media (Elwood, 2008; Thatcher, 2016)
Privacy (Curry, 1997)
- Geoweb transformation of the social contract around privacy – societal agreement (Elwood, 2015)
Access to technology (Obermeyer, 1995)
Risk of Re-enforcing inequality
- Decline of the public sector - private sector leading
- "Enthusiasts" can fly, not governments
- International regulations vary dramatically
Medium influences who will participate
Comfort level when flying
Only scratching the surface
Conclusion & Future
Maps are political
Work with communities
Opportunity to establish ethical standards for UAV usage
DATA PREPAREDNESS AS DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
- Illuminate social and environmental injustice
- Relevant Temporal Resolution
- Enhanced Spatial Resolution
- Increased coverage
- Complement existing research methods
- Opportunity to establish good practice with community engagement
Participation sparks critical thinking during each step of the process
Illuminate methods in which to utilize these increasingly accessible technologies to edit your world, tell your truth,
share your experience in place.
Data Day Dreams
Acknowledgments: Agnieszka Leszczynski , Muki Haklay,
Sarah Elwood, Ali Modarres
U of Auckland
By Britta Ricker