Britta Ricker, PhD
- Geospatial Technology
- Citizen Science
- Disaster and Data Needs
- Demystifying UAV Workflow
- Social Implications
- Conclusions and future work
Maps = Power
Waldseemüller map 1507
Dashboards = Power
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Geographic Information SYSTEMs (GIS)
GIS and spatial media
"...knowledge politics to be shaped by deeply institutionalized tendencies in planning and policy making to grant greater weight to knowledge expressed as quantitative data or represented in cartographic forms."
Data Driven Decision Making
(Elwood & Leszczynski, 2012: 545)
interconnected tools and spatial data available on the web spanning multiple geographic regions (Lake and Farley, 2007)
Revolutionized spatial data (Sui, 2008)
but not democratizing it (Haklay, 2013)
Provides access to satellite and aerial imagery! (Goodchild, 2007; Harvey, 2014; Kingsbury & Jones, 2009)
Opportunity to contribute Volunteered Geographic Information (Goodchild, 2007)
Maps --> Media
Elwood & Leszczynski (2012) New spatial media, new knowledge politics. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (38): 544-559.
"Mediums or channels that extend our ability to interact with and create geographic information online" p 544
"From expert to everyday"
(Elwood & Leszczynski, 2012)
Public Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS)
Maintain a keen awareness as to not reproduce inequalities. Active engagement in effort to use these technologies to combat inequalities (Elwood, 2015)
means to illuminate social and environmental injustices
co-construction of knowledge= Better understanding of HAZARDS?
promotion of self and critical awareness that leads to individual, collective social change
Participatory Action Research
"moment of translation
transforming experiential, testimonial and qualitative forms of knowledge into quantitative aggregated or abstracted forms" (Elwood & Leszczynski , 2012: 548)
Method by which participants identify, represent, and enhance their community through a specific photographic technique
- Identify community assets and deficits
- Use photography to draw attention to a social issue
- Induce change by informing policy makers
Tell me, I forget.
Show me, I remember.
Involve me, I understand.
-Chinese Proverb (Paulos et al., 2009)
Citizen Science “scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions.” (Haklay, 2015)
Examples of Student Work: Capstone Project
Scientists: Julie Masura and Cheryl Greengrove
Students: Chris Vandenburg, Dana Scott
•UW, NOAA, Center for Urban Waters, Sound Experience
Data Entry For Citizen Science?
Who is the end user?
Who is entering the data?
What is going to be done with data?
Technical knowhow of the developer?
Julie's website http://depts.washington.edu/uwtocelb/wordpress/
Medium influences who will participate
DIFFERENT Data NeEDS AT EACH PHASE
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
(Sandvik & Lohne, 2014)
Drones for good
- Emergency response
- Search and Rescue
- Natural resource management
- Remote Sensing
- (Colomina & Molina, 2014; Everaerts, 2008, Forance et al., 2014; Upton et al., 2015; Zhang & Kovacs, 2012; Rokhmana, 2015).
- Digital Humanitarianism
- Conservation Drones
- Drone Code
Taiwan’s National Cheng Kung University created this 3D model from aerial imagery captured by UAV.
The Appalachian Mountaintop Patrol (AMP)
Laura grace chipley
- evokes emotion
- representations of place
- What if we used it for something more important?
Digital Maps! Digital Globes offer basemaps for participatory mapping. But they also control temporal and spatial resolution of those basemaps
Putting a UAV in the hands of a community, could they monitor...
- Community changes through the course of a day, season, year...
- Acute changes - landslide event, urban encroachment
- Gradual changes - land use change, urban growth
- Ecosystem services
- Access to water resources, refugee camp movement
- Habitat loss...
Demystify the Workflow
- Drone Selection Process
- Flight Practice and Planning
- Data Processing
(Eisenbeiss, 2011: 34)
Classified by takeoff and landing methods
DJI Phantom 2 Vision Plus
- 25 minute flight time
- Return home when battery is low
- Compass and GPS
- 14 mega pixel camera and Gimble
Flight Practice and Planning
Photography and Cinematography
Structure from Motion (SfM) software
Generate an Othophoto
- Bullet One
- Bullet Two
- Bullet Three
77 photos to make an orthophoto, 3D model + more in
> one hour total
Share your data
Similar critiques of GIS
and mobile spatial media (Elwood, 2008; Thatcher, 2016)
Privacy (Curry, 1997)
- Geoweb transformation of the social contract around privacy – societal agreement (Elwood, 2015)
Access to technology (Obermeyer, 1995)
Risk of Re-enforcing inequality
- Decline of the public sector - private sector leading
- "Enthusiasts" can fly, not governments
- International regulations vary dramatically
Medium influences who will participate
Only scratching the surface
OSM for disaster PREPAREDNESS
Student Project: Pull from OSM
•*Roundabouts at intersections
•Narrow two-way streets (because of street parking, only one vehicle at a time can pass through in either direction.)
•Speed bumps on streets
•*Single-family home; Duplex, Triplex, or Apartment Building
•*Number of floors
• *how many apartments
•*Location of Gas Meter(s)
•*Location of Electric Meter(s)
•*Location of Stationary Propane Tank(s)
•*Location of Stationary Heating Fuel Tank (Heating Oil)
•Solar Panels of Roof? (Y or N)
•*Presence of a detached garage
for disaster preparedness
Communities of Practice
Esri App Studio
Communities of interest
More research questions!
What knowledge is transferred
through the data entry/collection process?
Through the map interaction process?
Conclusion & Future
Maps are political
Work with communities
Opportunity to establish ethical standards for UAV usage
DATA PREPAREDNESS AS DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
- Illuminate social and environmental injustice
- Relevant Temporal Resolution
- Enhanced Spatial Resolution
- Increased coverage
- Complement existing research methods
- Opportunity to establish good practice with community engagement
Participation sparks critical thinking during each step of the process
Data Day Dreams
Participate in Citizen Science!
Acknowledgments: Muki Haklay, Agnieszka Leszczynski,
Julie Masura, Andrew James, Sarah Elwood, Highline College Mast Center
University of Washington Office of Global Affairs Strategic International Partnership Travel Award
By Britta Ricker