A Brief History of Rust

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A Brief History of Rust

circa 2006: Rough inception

2009: Tentative Mozilla involvement

2010: Public Mozilla commitment

2011: Compiler self-hosts, Servo begins

2012: First public release

2014: First beta release

2015: First stable release

Timeline

2006-2009

~foo(lit,er,als) {
    ... a-random-string ...
}

User-defined literals

2006-2009

try {
    ...
} trap foo(x) {
    fix x + 10;
} trap bar(y) {
    log "got a bar";
    fail;
}

Exceptions

2006-2009

if (... ) {
    x = foo();
} else {
    // "uh oh"
    x = raise foo(gurgle);
}

Exceptions

2006-2009

fn f(int x, int y) -> () { ... }

type thunk1 = fn f(int x) -> ();
type thunk0 = fn f() -> ();

let thunk1 t1 = bind f(10,_);
let thunk1 t2 = bind f(_,10);
let thunk0 t0 = bind f(10,12);

No closures, only currying

2006-2009

// what
for (~auto e = v.(,)) {
    out <| e <| endl;
}

Iterators and printing

2006-2009

Language runtime

"Hmm. I am generally not interested in multithreading: it's not worth the pain. There are reasons you might want it, but they're few."

2006-2009

Tuples

"NO DAMN TUPLES" [...] "NO WAIT, WE NEED TUPLES"

2006-2009

References

"Can you alias a non-copyable? Hmm. There is very little point! You would not be able to copy an alias-of-a-non-copyable and, as it's an alias, you would not be able to move (modify) it either."

2006-2009

type mt = mod {
    type e;
    fn mk()->e;
    fn eat(e)->nil;
}   

let mt mv = mod {
    type e = int;
    fn mk()->e { ret 1; }
    fn eat(int i) { }
}  

use mt mm = mv;
let mm.e me = mm.mk();
mm.eat(me);

First-class modules

2006-2009

let set[int] s1 = listSet[int];
let set[int] s2 = treeSet[int];
let set[int] s3 = mod set[int] {
    type t = []; ...
}

Square brackets

2006-2009

Typestate

"Every program containing symbolic expressions maps to a sequence of statements in a 3-operand-statement normal form with call-by-value-return move-semantics on slots and bindings. Every "point" (inbetween normalized statements) in a program has a typestate. Two typestates are therefore defined for each statement: its prestate and its poststate. A typestate is formally a set of N-ary boolean predicates over visible slots. Typestates form a semilattice ordered by subset-inclusion (x < y means x is a subset of y), where 'join' means 'set intersection'. When N statements lead to a single point, the point's typestate is the pairwise join of the N poststates of preCeding statements."

2011

category name(T) {
    fn foo(params) -> ret {
        /* self has type &T */
    }
    priv fn bar(params) -> ret {
        /* self has type &T */
    }
}

"Categories"

2011

struct T<...> {
  member1: T1;
  mutable member2: T2;
  priv member3: T3;
}

"Categories"

2011

iface animal {
    fn speak();
    fn play();
};

Interfaces

2012

class monster {
    let mut health: int;
    let name: str;

    new(health: int, name: str) {
        self.health = health;
        self.name = name;
    }
}

Classes

2012

use std;
fn main(args: [str]) {
    std::io::println("hello from '"
        + args[0]
        + "', world!");
}

Hello World

2012

#warn("only %d seconds remaining", 10);
#error("fatal: %s", get_err_string());

Macros

2012

fn call_twice(f: block()) { f(); f(); }
call_twice({|| "I am a block"; });
call_twice(fn@() { "Boxed closure"; });
fn bare_function() { "Plain function"; }
call_twice(bare_function);

Closures

2012

alt mypoint {
    {x: 0f, y: y_name} { /* Sub-pattern */ }
    {x, y}             { /* Bind */ }
}

Matching

2012

let x = @10; // New box, refcount of 1
let y = x; // Copy pointer, bump refcount

Garbage-collected data

2012

let x = ~10;
let y <- x;

Owned data

A Brief History of Rust

By bstrie

A Brief History of Rust

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