Think 2019 / DOC ID / February 14, 2019 / © 2019 IBM Corporation

Jamming with a Quantum Computer
Because NISQ* begins with Noisy

James Weaver
Quantum Developer Advocate
@JavaFXpert

*Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum computers

slides.com/javafxpert/jamming-with-ibm-quantum

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Think 2019 / DOC ID / February 14, 2019 / © 2019 IBM Corporation

About Presenter James Weaver

IBM Quantum Developer Advocate

 

Author of several Java/JavaFX/RaspPi books

 

Java Champion, JavaOne Rockstar, plays well with others, etc :-)

 

james.weaver@ibm.com
JavaFXpert.com

CulturedEar.com

Concepts we'll address today

  • Quantum computing overview
  • Relationship between music and quantum computing
  • Species counterpoint musical style
  • Composing music probabilistically
  • Creating melodies and harmonies with quantum notes
  • Programming a quantum computer with open source Qiskit
  • Musical composition and jamming demos along the way

History repeating itself

Massive hardware, limited bits, software infancy

Quantum computers make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data.

IBM Announces Q System One at CES 2019

Feasible on classical computers

Feasible on quantum computers

Solutions to problems

Why use a quantum computer?

Some problems may be solved exponentially faster

“Nature isn't classical, dammit, and if you want to make a simulation of nature, you'd better make it quantum mechanical, and by golly it's a wonderful problem, because it doesn't look so easy.”

Simulating nature

complex chemical reactions, for example

Dr. Richard Feynman, 1981

“If you start factoring 10-digit numbers then it’s going to start getting scary”

Breaking RSA crypto

someday maybe, using Shor's algorithm, formulated in 1994

Dr. Peter Shor, 2013

“Programming a quantum computer is particularly interesting since there are multiple things happening in the same hardware simultaneously.  One needs to think like both a theoretical physicist and a computer scientist.”

Quickly searching unsorted data

using Grover's algorithm

Dr. Lov Grover, 2002

Near-term quantum computing domains

Conspicuously absent:

Music composition & improvisation

Machine Learning

Optimization

Chemistry

Finance

“Once a musical style has become part of the habit responses of composers, performers, and practiced listeners it may be regarded as a complex system of probabilities.”

Music and quantum mechanics are probabilistic

Leonard B. Meyer

Music, the Arts, and Ideas

Bongo music isn't classical, dammit, and if you want to make a simulation of music, you'd better make it quantum mechanical.

To inaccurately paraphrase Dr. Feynman:

The Big Idea:

Ask a quantum computer to compose music

We'll demo a simplified version of the species counterpoint style of music, as it is well defined and may be expressed using probabilities

From OpenMusicTheory.com Composing a second-species counterpoint

What is counterpoint?

The relationship between voices that are interdependent harmonically yet independent in rhythm and contour

From OpenMusicTheory.com Composing a second-species counterpoint

Tip: For a gentle introduction to counterpoint, check out the Species Counterpoint article by Nicholas H. Tollervey

Giovanni Palestrina

Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music

  • Created Palestrina-style counterpoint
  • Best known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition
  • Influenced music of composers such as Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Joseph Fux

Born in Austria, Johann codified Palestrina's techniques in the 1700s, calling it species-counterpoint, mainly for teaching students.

  • Published in Gradus ad Parnassum *
  • Describe valid pitch and rhythmic relationships between notes
  • Influenced music of Hayden, Mozart and Beethoven

* Steps to Mt. Parnassos (which was the home of the muses)

Transition matrix

edition

Quantum Music Composer app

Example characteristics of counterpoint melodies:

- mostly stepwise motion, but with some leaps (mostly small leaps)

- tendency for melodies to move by descending step more than ascending

Expressing melodic characteristics

in a transition matrix

Example characteristics of counterpoint harmonies:

- All harmonic consonances are allowed.

- Imperfect consonances are preferable to perfect consonances

- Unisons should only be used for first and last intervals.

Expressing harmonic characteristics

in a transition matrix

Volkmar Putz and Karl Svozil, “Quantum music,” (2015), arXiv:1503.09045 [quant-ph]

In Quantum Music Composer, note pitches are represented by quantum states

Melodic and harmonic transitions are realized by quantum logic gates

What's Quantum Got to Do with It?

\vert\space\space\space\rangle
= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
= \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}
= \begin{bmatrix} \sqrt{\frac{1}{3}} \\ \sqrt{\frac{2}{3}} \end{bmatrix}
\sqrt{\frac{1}{3}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
+
\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle

Representing quantum states

\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle

using degree of freedom rotations

.33\approx\frac{1}{3}
.67\approx\frac{2}{3}
.57\approx\sqrt{\frac{1}{3}}
.82\approx\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}}

Modifying transition matrices

\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\frac{1}{3}
\frac{2}{3}

wp

wp

Sample melody:

...

...

Quantum computer composing a melody

Quantum computer composing a song

Quantum Musical Composition from Melbourne

Representing Qubits with the Bloch Sphere

Composing quantum circuits

IBM Q Experience

Quantum Assembly Language (QASM)

IBM Q Experience

IBM Q Experience measurement results

Qiskit open source quantum computing framework

Developing quantum apps

Qiskit Terra foundational stack

Developing quantum apps

Sample output:

{'00': 496, '11': 528}

Expresses circuit:

Minimal Qiskit example

\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
+
\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle

00

C

11

F

\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
-
\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle

01

D

10

E

\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
-
\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle

00

C

11

F

\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
+
\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle

01

D

10

E

Composing in the Bell states

Qiskit Aqua quantum algorithms

Developing quantum apps

Near-term quantum computing domains

Machine Learning

Optimization

Chemistry

Finance

and Science

Now it's your turn to play! Try out the self-faced workshop including guided exercises and Qiskit tutorial notebooks at learnqiskit.org

Hands-on Qiskit workshop

Close encounters of the minor third kind

Notices and disclaimers

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IBM products are manufactured from new parts or new and used parts. In some cases, a product may not be new and may have been previously installed. Regardless, our warranty terms apply.”

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Think 2019 / DOC ID / February 14, 2019 / © 2019 IBM Corporation

Performance data contained herein was generally obtained in a controlled, isolated environments. Customer examples are presented as illustrations of how those customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved. Actual performance, cost, savings or other results in other operating environments may vary.

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Notices and disclaimers continued

Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their published announcements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products about this publication and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products. IBM does not warrant the quality of any third-party products, or the ability of any such third-party products to interoperate with IBM’s products. IBM expressly disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a purpose.

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Think 2019 / DOC ID / February 14, 2019 / © 2019 IBM Corporation

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Think 2019 / DOC ID / February 14, 2019 / © 2019 IBM Corporation

Jamming with a Quantum Computer
Because NISQ* begins with Noisy

James Weaver
Quantum Developer Advocate
@JavaFXpert

*Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum computers

Jamming with an IBM Quantum Computer

By javafxpert

Jamming with an IBM Quantum Computer

Because NISQ begins with Noisy

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