Small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

Drones, What are they Good for?

May 16, 2018

Peter Keum - WTD GIS Specialist, GISP

peter.keum@kingcounty.gov   

Just another tool in the toolbox

@pkeum

Short Back Story

CUGOS April 2014

"Google Guys"

  1. Introduction of sUAV

  2. Regulations/Guideline - FAA & King County (WTD) 

  3. Application Examples & KC WTD Projects

small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (sUAV) System

UAV - Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

FAA Definition: Unmanned Aircraft (UA) system that is operated by a pilot via ground control or on-board computer. 

1. Introduction of UAV

UAV Categories

Small  

  • Size: 1 - 2 meters ( 3 ft - 6.5 ft), < 55 lbs. 
  • Control: Visual line of sight, Radio control
  • DJI Phamtom, 3DR - Solo, Insitu - ScanEagle

Medium 

  • Size: Equivalent to a car, ~ 1000 lbs.
  • Control: Visual Line Of Sight (VLOS) & Beyond LOS, RC & Satellite
  • General Atomics -MQ1 Predator 

Large  

  • Size: > 30,000 lbs. 
  • Control: Visual Line Of Sight (VLOS) & Beyond LOS, RC & Satellite
  • Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk ~$222 Million

UAV

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle "Drone"

sUAV as Platform

Multi-rotors

Fixed wings

  • Short flight time (< 20min)
  • Cover small area
  • Highly maneuverable
  • Less expensive
  • Access to confined spaces
  • Long flight time (+ 30min)
  • Covers large area
  • Larger selection of sensors

 Sensors

Multi-spectral 

Thermal Infrared

Lidar Camera

High resolution digital camera

  • Price /Performance
  • Easy to use
  • Quality data collection
  • Adopting Rule by FAA

Why Now?

Cell Phone Technology + Lower $$

  • Electronic Control System (ECS)
  • Accelerometer & Gyroscope Chip
  • GPS Chip
  • Lithium Polymer (LiPo) Battery
  • Motors

Integrated gyroscopic/GPS Chip in 2000's = $10,000

In 2017 = $3

1981 $120,000

2013

$5 - $15

It's just a toy...

2014

It's just a toy...past examples of what used to be

It's just a toy...

Workflow

1. Aircraft + Sensor        (Data Collection)

2. Data Processing & Analyzing (GIS)

3. Information Products

||

+

Benefits

  • Temporal Resolution
    • Fly more often

Offer decision makers with appropriate analytic information products

  • Spatial Resolution
    • Monitor continuous changes
    • High Spatial resolution than Satellite, Plane
  • More Data > More Knowledge > Better Decision Making

Some Commercial Uses

FAA Regulations - Where are we now?

2. Regulations

Commercial/Governmental

  1. Section 333 Exemption from FAA

  2. SAC - Special Airworthiness Certificates from FAA

  3. FAA Small UAV Rule - Part 107, July 2016

Commercial/Governmental

FAA Part 107 Rule, July 2016

  • Need FAA Remote Pilot Certification (Pilot license NOT needed)

  • As of September 2017 -60,000 active remote pilot certificates

  • Fly under 400 feet above ground level

  • Not to fly < 5 nautical miles around airport

  • Aircraft < 55 lbs.

  • Fly during daytime

  • Fly visual line of sight ( VLOS)

  • No flight over non-participating people

FAA Part 107 Rule

Hobby/Recreation

  • Self register (over 13 yrs old)

  • Fly under 400 feet above ground level

  • Not to fly < 5 nautical miles around airport

  • Aircraft < 55 lbs.

  • Fly during daytime

  • Fly visual line of sight ( VLOS)

King County WTD

"Subject: WTD Policies on Use of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Drones)

Managers/Supervisors: August, 2016

I’d like you to share the following policy guidance regarding the use of drones for work purposes with your staff as appropriate. The guidance specifically addresses the use of drones classified as small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), which weigh less than 55 lbs."

  • No owning or operating drones by WTD
  • Manager/Supervisor review and require Division Director approval
  • 3rd Party to meet KC Risk Management requirements

Workflow Example 1

Whidbey Island, Langley Downtown example (Spring, 2014)

3. Application Examples

Step 1. Flight with Data Collection

Step 2. Data Processing

  1. QGIS to georeference aerial imagery export to tiff file
  2. Using GDAL
  3. Or use mbutili to export into tiles
gdal2tiles.py --profile=mercator -z 1-22 yourmap.tif outputfolder

Step 3. Information Product 1

  • Create web-map using GitHub's gh-page
git checkout gh-pages
git add outputfolder
git commit -m "Yes... TILE DATA"
git push

Step 3A. Information Product 2

  • Using imagery to digitize street, add features to OSM
http://langleywa.github.io/gisdata/tiles/langley-2nd-street-2014-tms/{z}/{x}/{y}.png
  • Add below url into OpenStreetMap iD Editor

Application Examples & WTD Projects

Proof-of-Concept

1. KC Brightwater Treatment Plant odor control building), 2014

 

2. Cedar River Revetment  (river bank protection), 2015

3.  West Point  Treatment Plant - Blue Pumps

Flying Brightwater TP Odor Control Units

Result

Cedar River Revetment (May, 2015)

Pumps (2014)

WTD Projects

  • West Point Treatment Plant Event

  • Floating Willow Raft (Brightwater TP)

  • West Point Treatment Aerial Photography

WTD Projects

  • West Point Treatment Plant Incident Feb, 2017

Seattle Times Headline

March 12, 2017

WTD Projects

  • West Point Treatment Plant Incident Feb, 2017

Drone Flights (March, 2017) - Soil Run-off Real cause of plume, not overflow

WTD Projects

  • West Point Treatment Plant Incident Feb, 2017

Drone Flights = Clarification

Photo from Seattle Times

KC WTD Drone Flight

March, 2017

WTD Projects

  • Floating Willow Raft - Mitigation & Monitoring Section: May - August 2017

Purpose: Willow growth shade analysis (1.5 acres)

Flight from May 2017

WTD Projects

  • Floating Willow Raft Shade Study

  • 4 Flights 2017 : May, June, July & August
  • Consultant flys and generate shade analysis & report
  • KC staff as an observer and in-house expert to develop work order & product review

WTD Projects

  • West Point Treatment Plant Orthophoto

  • October 2, 2017
  • Over 600 images collected
  • High Resolution 0.75 inch/piexel

Purpose:

To generate aerial photographs of West Point Treatment Plant

Not these method

X

X

X

Nor this

Using This

DJI Phantom 4

Start to finish: ~ 4 hours (~ 1 hr flight time)

Resulting 600 images

So Where are we now...

  • Need to develop County wide policy

  • Administrative Strategy + Technology (enterprise level) strategy needed

    • Amass data --> Download --> Analyze
  • Various software packages to process captured data (Proprietary & Open Source) solutions.

  • OpenDroneMap: Open source command line toolkit for processing aerial drone imagery

  • WebODM: Web Interface for using OpenDroneMap

So Where is it going...

  • Increase in Enterprise use of Drone

    • Using it because it does job better

  • Successful technology is not thrill but becomes essential and accepted 

GPT

General Purpose Technology

GPT

Long Pole Aerial Photography

(DIY: Long Pole + Camera) + Software + GIS = Environmental Analysis

Resources:

END

for now

Thank You

peter.keum@kingcounty.gov

Drone talk - CUGOS

By Peter Keum

Drone talk - CUGOS

Presentation for May 2018 CUGOS group - Overview of sUAV hardware/application examples and workflow

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