Getting Stylish

What makes a website "look good"?

{warm up}

Writing stylesheets
 

Arranging elements

Mobile first

{writing stylesheets}

Cascading Style Sheets

Cascading Style Sheets

Styles applied in a cascade

<div id="container">
    <div id="sub-div"> // Has own styles + #container styles
        <p id="block"> // Own styles + #sub-div + #container
            <text>Text1</text> // styles + #block + #sub-div + #container
            <text>Text2</text>
            <text>Text3</text>
        </p>
    </div>
</div>

Defining styles

Inline with HTML elements

<div style="font-size:30px">Text goes here</div>

Style section in HTML code

<html>
    <style>
        **** CSS syntax goes here ****
    </style>
</html>

Include from a separate file

<html>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="css/my-css.css"/>
</html>

Applying styles

Recall HTML element attributes

<div id="my-div" class="container">...</div>

In CSS, select by property or type

/* CSS pseudo-code */
selector {
    property:value;
}

Selectors

By ID

li { /* all <li> elements */
    property:value;
}

By class

.my-class { /* with the . symbol */
    property:value;
}

By element type

#my-id { /* with the # symbol */
    property:value;
}

Units in CSS

Absolute units

in (inches)

px (pixels, 1px = 1/96 in)

cm (centimeters)

mm (millimeters)

pt (point, 1pt = 1/72 in)

pc (picas, 1pc = 12 pt)

Relative units

% (percentage of parent width)

em (relative to font-size)

{arranging elements}

The box model

Every HTML element is a box with content

{even text!}

How to understand layout

Positioning is dictated by size of each box

The box model

The box model

The box model

The box model

The box model

The box model: padding

Space between content and border

The box model: Margin

Space between boxes

Arranging elements

"Block" level elements (divs, by default)

<div>Block element</div>
<div>Block element</div>

"In-line" level elements (spans)

<span>Inline element</span>
<span>Other inline element</span>

Arranging elements

Inline-block elements

Allow other elements on the same line (unlike block)

Can set width/height (unlike in-line)

Positioning elements

Fixed position

#element {
    position:fixed;
}

Keeps element fixed relative to browser window

Positioning elements

Absolute position

#element {
    position:absolute;
}

Positioned an absolute number of pixels from parent

(removed from flow of other elements)

Positioning elements

Relative position

#element {
    position:relative;
}

Move element relative to where it should be

Specifying color

Too many options

english: 'blue'

Hue-saturation-lightness: hsl(255, 100, 50%)

red-green-blue: rgb(0,0,255)

Hex: #0000FF

{mobile-first}

What?
 

Why?

How?

{what}

{why?}

Why mobile?

Why first?

Graceful degradation v.s. progressive enhancement

Easier to add than remove

Do the hard work up front

{how?}

What can it do?

Set-up

<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
    <!-- The above 3 meta tags *must* come first in the head;-->
</head>

Set device width

/* In CSS stylesheet */
@import url(https://..../bootstrap.min.css);

Import css

The Grid

Horizontal sections as rows

Vertical sections as columns

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Row 1

Row 2

Columns

There are 12 columns in the grid

Elements can take up many columns

Row 1:

Row 2:

Row 3:

Specify columns based on screen-size

Syntax

<body>
    <div class="container">
        <div class="row">    
            <div class="col-md-6">6 columns on a medium screen</div>
            <div class="col-md-6">6 columns on a medium screen</div>
        </div>
    </div>
</body>

Set columns for desired device

Create elements

Under the hood

@media screen and (max-width: 300px) {
    body {
        background-color: lightblue;
    }
}

Media queries

Conditional styles

Navigation

<nav class="navbar navbar-default">
    <div class="container">
        <!-- Header for mobile -->
        <div class="navbar-header">
            ....
        </div>
        <!-- Screen navigation elements -->
        <div id="navbar" class="navbar-collapse collapse">
            ...
        </div>
</nav>

Use bootstrap's built in navigation classes

Use lists to build controls

<ul class="nav navbar-nav">
    <li class="active"><a href="#">Home</a></li>
    <li><a href="#about">About</a></li>
    <li><a href="#contact">Contact</a></li>
</ul>

Assignment

Map Challenge (due before next class)

style

By Michael Freeman

style

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