CSS



CSS SelectorS

  • *
  • #id
  • element (div, span)
  • element > element
  • [attribute=value]
  • :focus
  • See this link for more:
    • http://www.w3schools.com/cssref/css_selectors.asp

HOW do selectoRs work?

  • CSS rules are evaluated from right to left
  • body div#content p
  • Delta between best and worst case selectors run time is 50 ms
    • Consider, but don't get too bogged down in selector performance
    • http://www.stevesouders.com/blog/2009/03/10/performance-impact-of-css-selectors/

CSS Specificity

  • Specificity determines which rules are applied by the browser
  • Specificity hierarchy (most specific -> least)
    • Inline 
    • IDs
    • Classes, attributes, psuedo classes
    • Element and psuedo-elements

Specificity 

  • How do you calculate specificity of a rule?
  • Sum up the selector count of each of the 4 categories, and read the number from left to right  



  • _ _ _ _

    WhiCH Style Wins?



    Display


    • Determines how/if an element is displayed
    • display: inline
      • Element appears on single line (no line break)
      • <span>  is generic inline element
    • display: block
      • Element has line breaks before and after
      • Can set box model properties
      • <div> is generic inline element
    • display: inline-block
      • Element appears on single line
      • Can set box model properties

    BOX Model


    • When you set the width and height properties, these apply to the content only!
    • To change this, you need to modify box-sizing CSS property
      • box-sizing: border-box

    POsition

    • Determines where is an element is located on a page
    • First set the position property, and then set top, right, bottom left properties to specify position 

    POsition TYPES

    • static (default): 
      • positioned in flow of document
      • Not affected by top, right, bottom, left
    • fixed
      • positioned relative to browser window
      • commonly used for setting website header
    • relative
      • Relative to its normal position
      • Does nothing unless you specify top, right, bottom, left
      • Space still reserved in flow
    • absolute
      • positioned absolutely within first non-static ancestor

    POsition Technique

    • position: relative elements are typically used as containers for absolutely positioned elements

    Coming soon: Sticky

    • New experimental position value called sticky
    • Allows you to have an element be position relatively until a certain threshold is reached, at which point it becomes fixed
    • Example: http://codepen.io/SitePoint/pen/piFxy
    • Currently not available in most browsers, but there are tons of polyfills available

      CSS Precompilers


      • SASS (Ruby)
      • LESS (Node)

      Style Guides/Philosophies

      • SMACSS
      • OOCSS
      • ACSS
      • BEM
      • Bottom line: Find a set of practices that work best for your use-case/project scale and clearly define them.

      BEM


      Common Best practices

      • Always use classes (instead of ids) for applying styles
        • IDs easily lead to specificity issues that become difficult to debug!
      • Don't use element selectors!
        • .my-element > span
        • You could end of having multiple spans within a container that represent different entities

      Common best practices

      Use dashes for class naming and try to use name spacing over nesting

      COMMON BEST PRACTICEs


      COMMON BEST PRACTICES

      • Try to only use nesting when adding psuedo classes (ex. :hover) or state classes (.selected)
          • Why? Excessive nesting becomes a nightmare to maintain and incredible difficult to read!
      • When adding styles to a selector, you should have some sort of consistent organization of those styles such that they can be easily visually parsed

      Common Best Practices


      COMMON BEST PRACTICES

      • Lets look through some code from our very own S3 to see if we can spot some bad practices:
        • https://github.com/socialtables/S3/blob/master/app.socialtables.com/less/floorplanner/spaces.less
        • https://github.com/socialtables/S3/blob/master/app.socialtables.com/less/events/events.less
        • https://github.com/socialtables/S3/blob/master/app.socialtables.com/less/floorplanner/base.less

      CSS RESET

      • Set of rules that is used to undo the default styles applied by browser to HTML elements
      • Why?
        • Allows us to establish a consistent baseline before applying styles
        • Prevents conflicts with unexpected browser default styles
      • Popular resets:
        • Eric Meyer’s “Reset CSS” 2.0
        • HTML5  Doctor CSS Reset
        • Yahoo! (YUI 3) Reset CSS
        • Universal Selector '*' Reset

      Z-Index Management

      • Currently, we have a big problem in S3 where our z-index properties have no relation to one another
      • Common technique for handling this is to use LESS lists or SASS arrays, and define the stacking order in the array
      • Then you use a mixin or index method to grab the index of the element from the array/list

      Z-Index Management


      Z-Index Management

      Compiles to:

      ALL INLINE STYLES

      • With the rise of web-components and component-based UIs such as React, there is increasing support for making all styles inline
      • Why?
        • Components are much more re-usable
        • All code for a component (JS logic, styling) can be found in a single file
      • Lets chat about this! What are your thoughts about this?

      USEFUL Links

      • http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/06/12/sassy-z-index-management-for-complex-layouts/
      • https://smacss.com/
      • https://github.com/giakki/uncss
      • https://github.com/necolas/idiomatic-css
      • https://github.com/lewattman/sass-conventions#file-structure
      • http://csswizardry.com/2013/01/mindbemding-getting-your-head-round-bem-syntax/

      Let's Talk

      • Should we create a Social Tables Style Guide?
      • What would you like to see included in it?
      • Should we have a module for useful LESS mixins? 
        • z-index management
        • reset file
      • Any other questions/comments/thoughts?!?

      CSS

      By Rohit Kalkur

      CSS

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