Styling & Animating 

Scalable Vector Graphics

with CSS

From The Front, Bologna, September 19, 2014

sarasoueidan.com / @SaraSoueidan

Hello!

Freelance front-end web developer and writer.

 

Author & team member @ Codrops

 

 

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation.

Why SVGs

  • Scalable & Resolution-Independent
  • Very good browser support
  • Accessible
  • Smaller file sizes than JPEG and/or PNG
  • Built-in graphics effects
  • Interactive & styleable
  • More..

Overview

  • Creating, Exporting & Optimizing SVGs
  • Styling SVGs with CSS
  • Animating SVGs with CSS
  • Embedding SVGs
  • Making SVGs Fluid
  • Making SVGs Adaptive (with Media Queries)
  • More..

Creating, Exporting, and Optimizing SVGs

Creating SVGs: Vector Graphics Editors

 Adobe Illustrator                    Inkscape                                Sketch

Optimizing SVGs: Standalone Tools (Peter Collingridge's SVG Editor)

Example

Optimizing SVGs: Standalone Tools (SVG-O + GUI)

Styling SVGs with CSS

<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" version="1.1" width="300px" height="300px" viewBox="0 0 300 300">

  <polygon

    fill = "#FF931E"

    stroke = "#ED1C24"

    stroke-width = "5"

    points = "279.1,160.8 195.2,193.3 174.4,280.8   117.6,211.1 27.9,218.3 76.7,142.7 42.1,59.6 129.1,82.7 197.4,24.1 202.3,114 "/>

</svg>

SVG Presentation Attributes

star.svg

Shared with CSS

SVG-Only

font, font-family, font-size, font-size-adjust, font-stretch, font-style, font-variant, font-weight, direction, letter-spacing, text-decoration, unincode-bidi, word-spacing, visibility, text-rendering, writing-mode, clip-path, mask-opacity, filter, pointer-events, image-rendering, clip, color, cursor, display, overflow 

clip-rule, flood-color, flood-opacity, stop-opacity, kerning, tech-anchor, color-profile, color-rendering, fill, fill-opacity, fill-rule, marker, marker-end, marker-mid, marker-start, stroke, stroke-width, stop-color, lighting-color, enable-background, dominant-baseline, color-interpolation-filters, color-interpolation, glyph-orientation-horizontal, glyph-orientation-vertical, shape-rendering, baseline-shift, alignment-baseline, stroke-miterlimit, stroke-linejoin, stroke-linecap, stroke-dashoffset, stroke-dasharray, stroke-opacity

In SVG2, more presentation attributes will be added.

Full List

<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" version="1.1" style="width: 300px; height: 300px;" viewBox="0 0 300 300">

  <polygon

    style="fill: #FF931E; stroke: #ED1C24; stroke-width: 5;"

    points = "279.1,160.8 195.2,193.3 174.4,280.8   117.6,211.1 27.9,218.3 76.7,142.7 42.1,59.6 129.1,82.7 197.4,24.1 202.3,114 "/>

</svg>

Inline Styles (style="...")

star.svg

<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" version="1.1" width="300px" height="300px" viewBox="0 0 300 300">

    <style type="text/css">

        polygon { fill: ... ;}

    </style>

    <polygon points = "279.1,160.8 195.2,193.3 174.4,280.8   117.6,211.1 27.9,218.3 76.7,142.7 42.1,59.6 129.1,82.7 197.4,24.1 202.3,114 "/>

</svg>

Embedded Styles (<style>) Inside SVG

star.svg

<!DOCTYPE html> <html><head>...</head>
    <body>

        <style type="text/css">

                       svg { width: ...; }

                       polygon { fill: ... ; }

        </style>

        <svg version="1.1" viewBox="0 0 300 300">

            <!--SVG content-->

        </svg>

    </body>

</html>

Embedded Styles (<style>) Outside SVG

star.svg

External Style Sheets

<?xml version="1.0" standalone="no"?>

<?xml-stylesheet type="text/css" href="styles.css"?>

<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" version="1.1" width="300px" height="300px" viewBox="0 0 300 300">

    <!-- SVG Content -->

</svg>

star.svg

Style Cascades

<style>

    circle {fill: orange;} 

</style>

<svg version="1.1" viewBox="0 0 400 400">

    <g fill="yellow">

        <circle cx="100" cy="100" r="100" fill="blue" style="fill: deepPink;" />

        <!-- ... -->

    </g>

</svg> 

Styles lower in the diagram override those above them

Animating SVGs with CSS

Example: CSS Transitions Demo: Iconic

Transforming SVGs

transform-origin: SVG vs HTML

transform-origin (default value)
HTML Elements (div, ::before, etc.)
SVG Elements (circle, rect, etc.)

50% 50%

(the center of the element itself, calculated relative to its box model)

0 0

(top left corner of the SVG canvas, not of the element itself)

transform-origin: SVG vs HTML

Example: 45deg Rotation

<!DOCTYPE html>

<div style="width: 100px; height: 100px; background-color: orange"> </div>

<svg style="width: 150px; height: 150px; background-color: #eee">

        <rect width="100" height="100" x="25" y="25" fill="orange" />

</svg>

Setting transform-origin in SVG using CSS

  1. Using percentage values: The value is set relative to the element's bounding box, which includes the stroke used to draw its border.
  2. Using absolute values: The origin is set relative to the SVG canvas.

Setting transform-origin in SVG using CSS

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>

<style>

    div, rect { transform-origin: 50% 50%; }

</style>

Setting transform-origin in SVG using CSS

FIREFOX BUG

Setting transform-origin in percentages does not work as expected. Use absolute values instead.

Example Animations Demo

.wheel {

        -webkit-transform-origin: 50% 50%;

        transform-origin: 193px 164px;

        animation:  spin 4s cubic-bezier(.49,.05,.32,1.04) infinite alternate;

}

@keyframes spin {

   50% {

      transform: rotate(360deg);

   }

}

3D Transforms

They work!

But...

Bugs!

 

  1. perspective doesn't currently work in Chrome
  2. 3D transforms on SVG elements are (currently) not hardware-accelerated in Chrome. They have the same performance profile as SVG transform attributes.

CSS Transitions & Animations can be used to animate any of the properties shared with CSS, but not the others.

Example: Morphing Paths

Example: Morphing Paths

Recommended: 

Snap.svg

Example: Motion Along a Path

Motion Along a Path in CSS

Embedding SVGs

Embedding Technique

CSS Animations

<img src="mySVG.svg" alt=".." />

CSS Interactions

Yes, only if inside <svg>

No

.el {background: url(mySVG.svg);}

No

Yes, only if inside <svg>

<object type="image/svg+xml" data="mySVG.svg"><!--fallback--></object>

Yes, only if inside <svg>

Yes, only if inside <svg>

<embed type="image/svg+xml" src="mySVG.svg" />

Yes, only if inside <svg>

Yes, only if inside <svg>

<iframe src="mySVG.svg"><!--fallback--></iframe>

Yes, only if inside <svg>

Yes, only if inside <svg>

<svg><!--SVG content--></svg>

Yes

Yes

Making SVGs Fluid

1

Remove 'width' and 'height' attributes from the root <svg>.

<svg version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" 
viewBox=".." width=".." height=".." >

    <!-- SVG content -->

</svg>

 

logo.svg

2

Add 'viewBox' attribute if not already present.

<svg version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"         viewBox="..">

    <!-- SVG content -->

</svg>

 

logo.svg

3

Set 'preserveAspectratio' to 'xMidYMid meet'.

logo.svg

Note that preserveAspectRatio has no effect if no viewBox is set.

<svg version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"       viewBox=".." preserveAspectRatio="xMidYMid meet">

    <!-- SVG content -->

</svg>

 

4

Embed..

..and apply fixes where/when needed..

background: url(logo.svg);

No fixes or hacks needed.

<img src="logo.svg" alt=".." />
img {
    width: 100%;
}

Required for Internet Explorer.

<object type="image/svg+xml" data="logo.svg"></object>    
object {
    width: 100%;
}        

Required for Internet Explorer.

<embed type="image/svg+xml" src="logo.svg" />
embed {
    width: 100%;
}        

 

Required for Internet Explorer.

<iframe src="logo.svg"></iframe>

Required for all browsers.

The "Padding Hack"

SVG embedded as <iframe> with and without Padding Hack

The "Padding Hack"

  1. Wrap SVG in a container. 
  2. Collapse container's height.
  3. Apply (top or bottom) padding such that the resulting height to width ratio = the svg's height to width ratio.
  4. Creating positioning context inside the container.
  5. Position svg absolutely inside the container.
  6. Give svg height and width = 100%.

The "Padding Hack"

<!doctype html>
<html>
    <head><!-- ... -->
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css" />
    </head>
    <body>
        <div class="container">
            <iframe src="logo.svg" alt="Company Logo"><!-- fallback --> </iframe>
        </div>
        </!-- ... -->
    </body>
</html>

page.html

styles.css

​.container {
    height: 0;
    width: width-value;
    padding-top: (svg 'height' / svg 'width') * width-value;
    position: relative;
} 
iframe {
    position: absolute;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    width: 100%;
    height: 100%;
}

1

2

3

4

5

6

<!DOCTYPE html>
<svg version="1.1" viewBox=".."></svg>

Required for Internet Explorer.

 

The Padding Hack

5

Resize.

Making SVGs Adaptive

(with Media Queries)

Example: Adaptive Logo

Example: Adaptive Logo

<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" version="1.1" viewBox="...">

    <style>

        svg * { transition: fill .1s ease-out, opacity .1s easeout; }

        @media all and (max-width: 250px) {

               #curved_bg { opacity: 0; }

               #secondary_content, #primary_content { fill:  #195463; }

         }

         @media all and (max-width: 200px) { /* ... */ }

         @media all and (max-width: 150px) {  /* ... */ }

    </style>

    <path id="#curved_bg" d="..." /><!-- ....... -->

</svg>

logo.svg

Example: Adaptive Logo

<div class="container">

        <img id="logo" src="logo.svg" alt="Company Logo." />

</div>

.container {

        width: 25%; /* or whatever */

        /* ... */

}

#logo {

        width: 100%; /* IE fix */

}

styles.css

The sizes specified in the media queries refer to the size of the SVG viewport, not to the size of the page viewport.

And the SVG viewport depends on the embedding technique you use—it can be either the size of the root <svg> (for an SVG embedded inline), or the size of the element referencing the SVG. 

Don't forget to..

Make SVGs Accessible

#MustRead

Optimize & Degrade Gracefully

#MustRead

Thank You!

Styling & Animating SVGs with CSS

By Sara Soueidan

Styling & Animating SVGs with CSS

From The Front, September 2014, Bologna.

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