Up and running in 15 minutes!

With all features needed for system monitoring and error recovery. It's like having a watchdog with a toolbox on your server

MONIT

Barking at daemons

What to monitor? 




How to monitor?  


Monit is controlled via an easy to configure control file with a simple syntax. The file is called monitrc and resides in your home directory. Configuring Monit is just text editing. 

An example  monitrc  file is included with the Monit download. Open it in your favourite editor and follow along..


 

Download either source or binary, or use your package manager to install a recent version (5.8 or later)

Starting and stopping


Start Monit from the command line:

$ monit

Monit will detach from the terminal and run as a daemon process (background process). As a daemon Monit runs in cycles; It monitors services, then goes to sleep for a configured period, then wakes up and start monitoring again in an endless loop until you choose to stop monit by this command:

$ monit quit 

User Interface

In addition to the command line interface, Monit also provides a super lightweight Web-Interface you can use to check the status of all monitored services

Configuration Examples

Is your website up?

(1) check host mmonit.com with address mmonit.com
(2)       if failed port 80 protocol http then alert
(3)       if failed port 443 type TCPSSL protocol http then alert
  1. Connects to and test the host mmonit.com
  2. Test using the HTTP protocol, if this fails, raise an alert
  3. Do the same test using HTTPS

You can add as many host checks as you need. Basically you can create your own pingdom and if you use M/Monit you will also get the ping and response-time charts.

Check a section on your site

check host mmonit.com with address mmonit.com
      if failed
         port 80 protocol http
         and status = 200
         and request /monit/ with content = "Monit [0-9.]+"
      then alert
Same as before, connect to mmonit.com on the HTTP port, but this time we check the HTTP status code returned by the server and request a specific page, /monit/ and test if a text string is present in the page. Note that you can use regular expression in the string test. If any of the above checks fails, we raise an alert

..and your mail server?

check host smtp.example.com with address smtp.example.com
      if failed port 25 with protocol smtp then alert

See the pattern? A simple check against a host address on the service port and then the protocol to test. Here's another example checking your MySQL server on localhost:

check host localhost with address 127.0.0.1        
if failed port 3306 protocol mysql then alert

Protocols

Monit supports many of the most popular protocols on the internet today, such as HTTP, SMTP, FTP, LDAP, NTP, SSH, SIP, IMAP, POP, DNS etc. Testing a server at the protocol level is important to determine if the server is working properly. Monit also provides a general send/expect test for sending bytes to the server and test the response. Here, for instance, we use send/expect to test a mail server:
if failed port 25 and
   expect  "^220.*"
   send    "HELO localhost.localdomain\r\n"
   expect  "^250.*"
   send    "QUIT\r\n"
then alert


Processes

If your web-site is down, getting an alert is all well and good, but it is much more useful if you can also have it automatically fixed, especially at 04 AM. Monit can do that.

Checking a Process

For this example, let us assume that your web-server is Apache, if not, no worries, the same applies to any process. Here is how we can check if Apache is running

check process apache with pidfile /var/run/httpd.pid 

That's all, Monit will check the process id (pid) in the given pid file and consult the system's process table and check if the process exist. If not, Monit will raise an alert. Next, we'll see how Monit can be configured to automatically start or restart Apache if it is not running.

Automatically start a Process

check process apache with pidfile /var/run/httpd.pid
      start program = "/etc/init.d/apache2 start"
      stop  program = "/etc/init.d/apache2 stop"

Tell Monit which program it should use to start the process if it is not running. We also add a stop program which Monit will use to make sure the process has stopped before it calls start. What is useful here is that these programs already exist on your system as init, upstart or systemd scripts and you do not have to write them yourself.

Now, if the Apache process has stopped for some reason, Monit will call the start program to automatically start Apache again.

Restart a Process

If you call help desk, the first thing they will tell you, is to restart your machine. It sounds silly, but more often than not, it works. Monit can do the same and try to restart a process if it does not work as expected. Here we add a restart program and we use this to restart Apache if it runs, but Apache for some reasons has stopped accepting new connections or fails to speak HTTP

check process apache with pidfile /var/run/httpd.pid
      restart program  = "/etc/init.d/apache2 restart"
      if failed port 80 protocol http then restart
*If we already have start and stop defined, we can call restart without having to add a restart program. Monit will then call stop and then start. Although a dedicated restart program is often desired as it might be a different operation

Avoid false positives

Before we restart a process, we might want to be certain that it has a problem and not just a fluke. This can be done by telling Monit that the problem must exist over multiple checks before a restart is performed.
if failed port 80 protocol http for 2 cycles then restart
Remember that Monit runs in check-sleep cycles. In the above example we tell Monit that the connection or protocol test has to fail at least 2 consecutive times before the process is restarted

Checked Resource Usage

You can check resources used by a process and perform actions if values goes outside specific bounds

check process apache with pidfile /var/run/httpd.pid
      <...>
      if cpu > 95% for 2 cycles then alert
      if total cpu > 99% for 5 cycles then restart
      if memory > 50 MB then alert
      if total memory > 500 MB then restart

The following resources can be checked, cpu, memory, total cpu (this, plus child processes cpu usage) and total memory (the combined memory used by this and child processes). See the manual for even more resources that can be checked.

Managing Services

Having start, stop and restart programs defined for a service is convenient if Monit is used from the command line. For instance to shutdown a set of services graceful at once

monit -g www stop

The above command line will call the stop program of all services belonging to the group www, which is quite useful for system administration. You can of course do the same to start or restart a single service or a set of services.

Avoid alert spam

Monit, like any monitoring system really, can be noisy and send a lot of email alerts. This can be very annoying, but luckily you can take steps to prevent this. Your primary tool for tuning Monit is the for n cycles statement

if total memory > 500 MB for 3 cycles then alert 

Use this statement with if-tests that produces too many alerts. How many cycles you should wait, if any, depends on the importance and stability of the service and how long a cycle is

Files, Directories and Disks

Monitoring Files

To keep with the Apache example. Let's say we want to test and perform a log rotate if Apache's access.log becomes too large

check file access.log with path /var/log/apache2/access_log
      if size > 250 MB then exec "/usr/sbin/logrotate -f apache"

Normally you will run the logrotate program once per day from crond, but if the log file suddenly should grow very large, Monit can perform an “emergency” rotate.

Checked File Changes

For security reasons you may want to monitor files for changes and get a notification if a file was tampered with (i.e. changed). The way to do this is to use the check file statement and utilize a checksum test. You can also test other attributes, such as owner and access permissions

check file apache with path /usr/sbin/httpd
      if failed checksum then alert 
      if failed uid root then alert
      if failed gid root then alert
      if failed permission 755 then alert

Here we test the apache binary. The checksum test in line 2 will raise an alert if the binary was changed

Monitoring directories

Directories can be monitored for changes. In this example we use timestamp to alert if content was added or removed

check directory certificates with path /etc/ssl/certs/
      if changed timestamp then alert

You can also turn the table and monitor a directory that should change

check directory incomming with path /var/data/ftp
      if timestamp > 1 hour then alert

If your server spool incomming data on a regular basis, an alert can be raised if no new data has arrived in the last hour

Monitoring Filesystems

Monitor a hard disk or a filesystem and raise alerts if the device is about to run out of available space

check filesystem disk2 with path /dev/disk2
      if space usage > 95% then alert

Using M/Monit you can then also view charts of your disks and predict when it is time to invest in more space

Programs

 

Check Programs

Monit can execute a program and perform an action if the exit value indicates an error. This means that you can use Monit to perform basically any type of check you can write a script for. For instance, lets say you have a script that connects to MySQL and runs a query. If everything is okay, the script exit with 0 otherwise with 1

check program salesreport with path /var/monit/programs/sales.sh
      every "* 8-9 * * 1-5"
      if status != 0 then alert

This will run the sales report check every weekday between 8AM and 9AM. Please see the manual for more information

just the tip

Monit, barking at daemons

By Tildeslash

Monit, barking at daemons

Your faithful employee

  • 30,433
Loading comments...