Considerations for BOPF-based development in the S/4HANA context

Victor Ionescu

msg systems, Technical Guidance Unit

About me

  • Technical Guidance Unit @ msg systems
  • organizer and speaker at #itconsapcj, now at it's 5th edition.  www.itconferencesap.com
  • Interests:
    • #ABAP, #BOPF, #S4HANA
    • #CloudNative, #CloudFoundry

https://people.sap.com/victor.ionescu

@ivictor88

BOPF Basics

Business Object Processing Framework

Design Time

Runtime

  • Business Object Model & various other artifacts:
    • ​validations
    • actions
    • determinations
    • etc.

API

IDEs

Persistency

BOPF

Nodes

Associations

Determinations

Actions

Validations

Transaction Handling

Authorization Handling

API

IDEs

A. Multiple flavors of SAP GUI Transactions:

  • (/BOBF/CONF_UI)
  • BOBX
  • BOB

 

 

IDEs

B. BOPF in Eclipse:

  • Simplified developer experience
  • Not always 1:1 with legacy IDEs

Example: Validation Handling with BOPF in Eclipse

Validation flavors in classical BOPF development:

  • Action Check (triggered by action)
  • Consistency Checks (triggered by modification)

 

Cross-node validation through "Consistency Groups"

action

action

commit

Action Check

Check after Modify

Check before Save

consistency group

!Change!

Example: Validation Handling with BOPF in Eclipse

Example: Validation Handling with BOPF in Eclipse

  • Simplified developer experience via Eclipse:
  • Single consistency group: means validations are execute at every save

The S/4 Programming Model

i.e. "ABAP Programming Model for SAP Fiori"

The Stack

Database

BOPF

CDS

SADL

Gateway

UI5

Database

BOPF

CDS

SADL

Gateway

UI5

What does SADL do?

/**
*  SADL = Abstraction layer between
*  OData and underlying business 
*  entities
*/

function SADL()
{
    interpret_OData_request();
    
    if ( action == READ )
    {
        build_query_and_push_to_database();
    }
    else // action == C/U/D
    {
        forward_to_transactional_engine(); //i.e. BOPF
    }
    
    map_result_to_OData();
}

Database

BOPF

SADL

Gateway

UI5

Several integration "flavors"

Database

CDS

SADL

Gateway

UI5

Database

BOPF

CDS

SADL

Gateway

UI5

S/4 Prog. Model

Database

BOPF

CDS

SADL

Gateway

UI5

Implications

  • CDS models are the "driving force"
  • BOPF models generated (via CDS annotations)
  • several aspects of BOPF development change

BOPF development in the S/4 Context

Disclaimer

  • Most experience gathered on Netweaver 7.50 environment
  • Enhancements to the programming model are constantly being delivered
  • Depending on your Netweaver release (<7.50/7.50/7.51/7.52) some functionality might differ

=> Will try to cover all angles..

 

BOPF & OData - bridging the Gap

OData BOPF
nouns
Entity(Set) Node
Navigation Property Association
Function Import Action
verbs
HTTP GET /Entity(id) Node.query(id)
HTTP POST /Entity Node.create()
HTTP PUT /Entity(id) Node.update(id)

Database

BOPF

SADL

Gateway

UI5

BOPF & OData - bridging the Gap (cont'd)

OData BOPF
$expand ?
$batch ?
Deep Insert ?

Database

BOPF

CDS

SADL

Gateway

UI5

...SADL!

BOPF & OData - implementation options

Database

BOPF

CDS

SADL

Gateway

UI5

< 7.50 SP5: Data Source Mapping

>= 7.50 SP5: "OData  Exposure" for CDS/BOPF Models

 Implications on BOPF-based development

Implications: Node Keys

  • Any OData entity must be uniquely identifiable by a key
  • BOPF uses generated GUIDs

 

 

  • Use a human-readable alternative key instead, (e.g. based on a number range)
GET SampleODataEntity('00505692515B1ED58EA9C9E0FD67DB41')
GET SampleODataEntity(1001)

Implications: Transient fields

  • BOPF transient fields are not accesible, as the SADL engine pushes queries directly to the DB
  • New in NW 7.51 SP03: Virtual Elements in CDS Views

Implications: Use of queries

  • BOPF artifacts used for performing queries on the underlying persistency layer
  • Still used internally in the framework, but replaced for developers and "consumers" by CDS-based queries 

Implications: Associations 

  • BOPF Associations are crucial, as they are the basis for OData Navigation Properties
  • Only modelled associations, not implemented

Database

BOPF

SADL

Gateway

UI5

Database

BOPF

CDS

SADL

Gateway

UI5

  • CDS Associations are used for OData Navigation

Authorization Handling

BOPF Model

"Classical" Authorization Handling with BOPF

Authorization Object (SU21)

Role (PFCG)

STUDENT_GRADE: {
    ACTVT: integer
    CLASS_NAME: string
}
ROLE MATH_TEACHER: [
    STUDENT_GRADE: {
        ACTVT = 01(READ) or 02(WRITE)
        CLASS_NAME = "MATH"
    }
]

mapping

read/write

BOPF Model

Authorization Handling in the S/4 Prog. Model

Authorization Object (SU21)

Role (PFCG)

STUDENT_GRADE: {
    ACTVT: integer
    CLASS_NAME: string
}
ROLE MATH_TEACHER: [
    STUDENT_GRADE: {
        ACTVT = 01(READ) or 02(WRITE)
        CLASS_NAME = "MATH"
    }
]

mapping

query condition provider

Database

SADL

Gateway

SELECT ... WHERE CLASS_NAME = "MATH"

CDS

Implications: Auth. Handling

  • Auth. Handling changes within the new prog. model, but works out-of-the-box for regular use-cases
  • Complex Auth. checks require double implementation:

 

 

 

 

 

  • Note: Netweaver 7.52 enhances authorization API further for draft-capability
Operation How
Write Redefine BOPF Auth. Checks
Read A. CDS DCL (Preferred)
B. Redefine Query condition provider

What about the UI?

  • Depending on authorization:
    • disable actions
    • set fields read-only
  • Classical BOPF development: Property Determinations
  • UI5-based Front-End: ?

Dynamic Action & Field Control

  • Available since NW 7.51 SP02
  • Driven by CDS model, but use the clasical BOPF property determinations
  • Fully integrated into SADL
define view <SAMPLE> ..
{
...

@ObjectModel.readOnly: 'EXTERNAL_CALCULATION'
viewField

...
}

Testing

Testing Recommendations for the BOPF Developer

  • Get comfortable with OData ($expand, $batch, deep inserts)
  • Manual dev.-tests:
    • Gateway client preferred over BOBT
  • Multiple choices for automated tests:
    • Framework support for Unit Tests
    • CDS Test Double Framework
    • eCATT OData E2E Tests

Further Reading:

In Conclusion

In the S4 Programming Model:

  • BOPF is still there, and does the heavy lifting  (but moves towards the background)
  • Understanding of CDS, OData etc. is a must

Thank you for you attention!

https://people.sap.com/victor.ionescu

@ivictor88  (Look for slides here)

Victor Ionescu

msg systems, Technical Guidance Unit

BOPF-based Development in the S/4HANA Context

By Victor Ionescu

BOPF-based Development in the S/4HANA Context

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