Generic Python Project Makefile

Configuration Management Working Group

October 25, 2016

Makefile for Python Web Development & Related Projects

Who

  • Alex Clark
    • Python Web Developer (for hire, forever)
    • Pillow (Python Imaging Library fork) author
    • Partner/President & Executive Director (ACLARK.NET, LLC/DC Python)
    • Systems Administrator (NIH)
    • (former) Network Engineer (BBN)
    • Would-be Computer Science PhD candidate
    • "Hacker" (I <3 UNIX & command line)

(Not a GNU Make expert)

What

  • Makefile for Python Web Development & related projects.

    • Django (startapp, startproject, etc.)

    • Python packaging (flake8, yapf, etc.)

    • Heroku (debug, push, etc.)

Where

  • https://github.com/aclark4life/project-makefile

When

  • Initial commit: January 12, 2016
  • https://github.com/aclark4life/project-makefile/commit/01a85c746d4a06058fcb4749e85186325449f34b
  • Originally "django-project"

Why

  • Laziness e.g.

    • $ make world
  • Familiarity e.g.

    • $ ./configure; make; make install
  • Simplicity e.g.

    • $ cp ~/Developer/project-makefile <DIR>

Car Analogy

If <YOUR_FAV_CM_SOFT> is a sports car…

              ____----------- _____
\~~~~~~~~~~/~_--~~~------~~~~~     \
 `---`\  _-~      |                   \
   _-~  <_         |                     \[]
 / ___     ~~--[""] |      ________-------'_
> /~` \    |-.   `\~~.~~~~~                _ ~ - _
 ~|  ||\%  |       |    ~  ._                ~ _   ~ ._
   `_//|_%  \      |          ~  .              ~-_   /\
          `--__     |    _-____  /\               ~-_ \/.
               ~--_ /  ,/ -~-_ \ \/          _______---~/
                   ~~-/._<   \ \`~~~~~~~~~~~~~     ##--~/
                         \    ) |`------##---~~~~-~  ) )
                          ~-_/_/                  ~~ ~~

 

E.g. Ansible, Chef, Puppet

This Makefile is…

A Volkswagen Beetle

(the old one)

                                 _________
         This             _.--""'-----,   `"--.._
       Makefile        .-''   _/_      ; .'"----,`-,
                     .'      :___:     ; :      ;;`.`.
                    .      _.- _.-    .' :      ::  `..
                 __;..----------------' :: ___  ::   ;;
            .--"". '           ___.....`:=(___)-' :--'`.
          .'   .'         .--''__       :       ==:    ;
      .--/    /        .'.''     ``-,   :         :   '`-.
   ."', :    /       .'-`\\       .--.\ :         :  ,   _\
  ;   ; |   ;       /:'  ;;      /__  \\:         :  :  /_\\
  |\_/  |   |      / \__//      /"--\\ \:         :  : ;|`\|    
  : "  /\__/\____//   """      /     \\ :         :  : :|'||
["""""""""--------........._  /      || ;      __.:--' :|//|
 "------....______         ].'|      // |--"""'__...-'`\ \//
   `| GNUMAKE |__;_...--'": :  \    //  |---"""      \__\_/
     """""""""'            \ \  \_.//  /
       `---'                \ \_     _'
                             `--`---'  dp

Context is Key

Possible Alternatives, Dependent on Context

 

  • Ansible, Chef, Puppet
  • Buildout
    • [buildout] extends = http://your-project
  • Shell
    • alias do="echo do stuff"
  • Fabric
    • def do_stuff(): print("do stuff")
  • Grunt
  • Rake

Questions

Ask anytime

Overview of GNU Make

  • "The make utility automatically determines which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled, and issues commands to recompile them…Our examples show C programs, since they are most common, but you can use make with any programming language whose compiler can be run with a shell command. Indeed, make is not limited to programs. You can use it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically from others whenever the others change." (https://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/html_node/Overview.html#Overview)

Overview of GNU Make

  • "Certain standard ways of remaking target files are used very often. For example, one customary way to make an object file is from a C source file using the C compiler, cc." (https://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/html_node/Implicit-Rules.html#Implicit-Rules)

GNUMakefile
Makefile
makefile

all: average counter list roach
average:
	gcc average.c -o average
counter:
	gcc counter.c -o counter
list:
	gcc list.c -o list
roach:
	gcc roach.c -o roach
trapezoid:
	gcc trapezoid.c -o trapezoid
clean:
	rm average counter list roach

A Makefile

Just
Type
$ make

all: average counter list roach
average:
	gcc average.c -o average
counter:
	gcc counter.c -o counter
list:
	gcc list.c -o list
roach:
	gcc roach.c -o roach
trapezoid:
	gcc trapezoid.c -o trapezoid
clean:
	rm average counter list roach

Without Implicit Rule Usage

objects = average.o
all: average counter list roach
average: $(objects)
	gcc -o average $(objects)
counter:
	gcc counter.c -o counter
list:
	gcc list.c -o list
roach:
	gcc roach.c -o roach
trapezoid:
	gcc trapezoid.c -o trapezoid
clean:
	rm average counter list roach

With Implicit Rule Usage

See what I did there?

Replaced explicit file (.c) compilation with implicit object (.o) compilation.

Implicit Behavior is Awesome!

(Except in Python)

Terminology
 "Makefile Moment #0"

  • "A variable is a name defined in a makefile to represent a string of text, called the variable’s value. These values are substituted by explicit request into targets, prerequisites, recipes, and other parts of the makefile. (In some other versions of make, variables are called macros.) (https://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/html_node/Using-Variables.html)

Installation

  • mkdir <YOUR-PROJECT>
  • cd <YOUR-PROJECT>
  • curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com\
    /aclark4life/project-makefile/master/Makefile

Usage

$ make help
Usage: make [TARGET]
Available targets:

    - ablog-build
    - ablog-init
    - ablog-serve
…

Terminology

"Makefile Moment #1"

  • A target is usually the name of a file that is generated by a program; examples of targets are executable or object files. A target can also be the name of an action to carry out, such as ‘clean’ (see Phony Targets). (https://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/make.html#Rule-Introduction)

Example #1

$ make help

Target

help:
    @echo "Usage:…
help:
    @echo "Usage: make [TARGET]\nAvailable targets:\n"

    @$(MAKE) -pRrq -f $(lastword $(MAKEFILE_LIST)) : 2>/dev/null | awk -v RS= -F:\
        '/^# File/,/^# Finished Make data base/ {if ($$1 !~ "^[#.]") {print $$1}}'\
        | sort | egrep -v -e '^[^[:alnum:]]' -e '^$@$$' | xargs | tr ' ' '\n' | awk\
        '{print "    - "$$0}' | less  # http://stackoverflow.com/a/26339924

    @echo "\n"
 

Terminology

"Makefile Moment #2"

  • "The goals are the targets that make should strive ultimately to update. Other targets are updated as well if they appear as prerequisites of goals, or prerequisites of prerequisites of goals, etc.
    By default, the goal is the first target in the makefile (not counting targets that start with a period). Therefore, makefiles are usually written so that the first target is for compiling the entire program or programs they describe… You can manage the selection of the default goal from within your makefile using the .DEFAULT_GOAL variable " (https://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/html_node/Goals.html)
targets : prerequisites
        recipe
        …

(https://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/html_node/Rule-Syntax.html#Rule-Syntax)

Terminology

Makefile Moment #3

Example #2

$ make

Target

.DEFAULT_GOAL=git-commit-auto-push

git-commit-auto-push: git-commit-auto git-push

 

 

# Git
MESSAGE="Update"
…
commit-auto: git-commit-auto  # Alias
commit-edit: git-commit-edit  # Alias
git-commit: git-commit-auto  # Alias
git-commit-auto-push: git-commit-auto git-push
…
git-commit-auto:
    git commit -a -m $(MESSAGE)
git-commit-edit:
    git commit -a
git-push:
    git push

Example #3

$ make ablog-init

Target

ablog-init:
    bin/ablog start

A Bit

About…

Python

Python

  • virtualenv
  • pip
  • requirements.txt
  • source bin/activate
  • bin/python

Example #4

$ make ablog

Target

ablog: ablog-clean \
         ablog-install\
         ablog-init \
         ablog-build \
         ablog-serve

Example #5

$ make django

Target

django: django-clean \
        django-install\
        django-init \
        django-migrate\
        django-su\
        django-serve

Terminology

"Makefile Moment #4"

  • "A rule appears in the makefile and says when and how to remake certain files, called the rule’s targets (most often only one per rule). It lists the other files that are the prerequisites of the target, and the recipe to use to create or update the target." (https://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/make.html#Rules)

Example #6

$ make sphinx

Target

sphinx: sphinx-clean \
    sphinx-install \
    sphinx-init \
    sphinx-build \
    sphinx-serve

A Bit

About…

JavaScript

JavaScript

  • NPM
  • webpack
  • Grunt

Example #7

$ make grunt

Target

grunt: grunt-init \
       grunt-serve

Terminology "Makefile Moment #5"

  • Ignore errors in a recipe with "-"
    • -ls one
    • -ls two
    • ls three

Example #8

$ make npm

Target

npm: npm-init \
        npm-install

A Bit

About…

Apps/Utils

Apps/Utils

  • ABlog
  • Plone
  • Sphinx
  • Vagrant

Example #9

$ make plone

Target

plone: plone-install \
        plone-init\
        plone-serve

Example #10

$ make vagrant

Target

vagrant: vagrant-init

Example #12

$ make django

Target

django: django-clean\
       django-install\
       django-init \
       django-migrate\
       django-su \
       django-serve
$ make lint
lint: python-lint
python-lint: python-flake\
        python-yapf\
        python-wc
 

Pros

  • Easy to install and use
  • Unified usage of various technologies

Cons

  • Arguably wrong tool for the job
  • Static PROJECT/APP definition

Todo

  • Support customization
    • Include other makefiles
    • Redefine targets
  • Support additional programming languages, apps, utils, etc.

Recap

  • GNU Make
    • Targets, Recipes, Rules, Prerequisites
  • Python
    • pip, virtualenv, requirements.txt
  • JavaScript
    • Grunt, Node Package Manager (NPM)
  • Apps & Utils
    • ABlog, Plone, Sphinx, Vagrant

The End

  • https://github.com/aclark4life/project-makefile
  • http://slides.com/aclark/project-makefile

Credits/Thanks

  • Jeff @ CMWG, attendees, reviewers
  • https://github.com/hakimel/reveal.js
    • https://slides.com
  • http://www.ascii-code.com/ascii-art/vehicles/cars.php

Project Makefile

By aclark

Project Makefile

  • 1,209
Loading comments...