Getting Started With React

Swarup Karavadi

@swazza85

About Me

  • Full Stack javascript developer
  • React Aficionado
  • Wannabe polyglot

Today's Talk

  • What is React?
  • Why React?
  • React Philosophy
  • Virtual DOM
  • Unidirectional Data Flow
  • JSX
  • React Ecosystem
  • Code Time!!!
  • ES6+ Features
  • Challenges
  • Q & A

What is React?

  • View rendering framework
  • Created by Facebook
  • Facebook calls it a "javascript library for building user interfaces"
  • I call it a framework - paradigm shift in thinking about building UIs

Why React?

Declarative Code

Tell javascript 'what' to render, don't worry about the 'how'.

<AppContainer>    
    <AppLayout>
        <Navbar />
        <Sidebar />
        <AppContent />
    </AppLayout>
</AppContainer>

=>

Composability 

  • All components are composable by default
  • Reusability via compasability
const Button = (text, onClick) => (
    <button type={type} onClick={onClick}>
        {text}
    </button>
)

const Input = (type, placeholder) => (
   <input type={type} placeholder={placeholder} />
)

const LoginForm = () => (
    <form>
        <Input type="email" 
               placeholder="Enter your email" />

        <Input type="password" 
               placeholder="Enter your password" />

        <Button type="submit" text="Submit" />
    </form>
)

<=>

Think in terms of "State"

  • Model your app around 'state' instead of DOM
  • No more DOM manipulations in your app code - only state updates!

Learn once - render anywhere

  • Browser DOM
  • Server
  • Web Worker
  • Mobile - iOS & Android
  • Even to webgl and web-vr!

React Philosophy

The Notion of State

state: "the particular condition that someone or something is in at a specific time"

in react: "the particular condition that the UI is in at a specific time"

component state: "the particular condition that a component is in at a specific time"

V = f(S)

View is a function of state

UI State changes with time - 

  • DOM Events
  • AJAX Callbacks
  • Timer events
  • Route Changes, etc

setState

React's setState method allows you to set the state of your UI

A React component subscribes to events that require state mutations

It uses setState to request React to update the view based on the latest state

setState - example

class Counter extends Component {
    constructor(props) {
        super(props)
        this.state = { count: 0 }    
    }

    updateCount(delta) {
        let { count } = this.state;
        this.setState({count: count + delta});
    }

    render() {
        return (
          <div>
            <button 
                onClick={() => this.updateCount(-1)}> 
                - 
            </button>
            {count}
            <button 
                onClick={() => this.updateCount(+1)}> 
                + 
            </button>
          </div>
        )
    }
}

State @ T0

DOM Subscriptions

State Mutations @ T1, T2, T3, ... , Tn

Virtual DOM

Implementation Detail

An in-memory tree data structure that represents a view at any given point of time

 

Virtual DOM allows React to be independent of DOM

 

This implies React can render to DOM or iOS or Android or other targets

diff => patch => apply

VDOM@T0

VDOM@T1

View@T0

State@T0

External Stimuli

State@T1

Diff@T0

Patch@T0

View@T1

Initial State

Create VDOM

Render to View

uses setState to mutate state

New state is calculated

Create VDOM

VDOMs at T0 & T1 are diffed

A DOM  Patch is created

Patch applied to render View

Unidirectional Data Flow

No Two-Way Binding

state is the only source of truth for a view

 

state can only be explictly mutated via setState

 

DOMEvents, AJAX Callbacks, etc cannot mutate state directly (unlike ngModel from ng 1.x)

Enabler for Flux Architecture

https://facebook.github.io/flux/

JSX

Templating language for creating react views

 

Typical React Components are created using React.createElement method

 

Readability nightmare when creating highly composable UIs

 

JSX is JS!

React: No JSX

export const FormWithoutJsx = () => {
  return React.createElement(
    'form',
    { onSubmit: (e) => {
        e.preventDefault()
        console.log('Form Submitted!')
      }
    },
    React.createElement(
      'input',
      { type:"text", placeholder:"username" },
      null
    ),
    React.createElement(
      'input',
      { type: "password", placeholder: "password" },
      null
    ),
    React.createElement(
      'button',
      { type: "submit" },
      "Submit"
    )
  )
}

React: JSX

export const FormWithJsx = () => {
  return (
    <form onSubmit={(e) => {
        e.preventDefault()
        console.log('Form Submitted')
      }}>

      <input type="text" placeholder="username" />
      <input type="password" placeholder="password" />
      <button type="submit">Submit</button>

    </form>
  )
}

Transpiling JSX to JS

Use "React JSX transform" - a babel plugin

 

Multiple ways to use babel. Most popular being with webpack.

React Ecosystem

Create React App

npm install -g create-react-app

create-react-app my-app
cd my-app/
npm start

And you are all set!

 

Demo Time!!

Frequently used ES6+ Features

  • Object Destructuring
  • Arrow Methods
  • Static fields
  • Classes
  • Imports
  • String Literals
import React, { Component, PropTypes } from 'react';

export class Input extends Component {
    static propTypes = {
        value: PropTypes.string,
        hasError: PropTypes.bool,
        onInputChange: PropTypes.func
    }

    constructor(props) {
        super(props);
    }

    render() {
        let { value, hasError, onInputChange } = this.props;

        return (
            <input type="text" 
                value={value} 
                className={`input ${hasError ? 'error' : ''}`} 
                onChange={(e) => onInputChange(e.target.value)} />
        ) 
    }
}

Imports

Exports & Class

String Literals

Arrow Methods

Static Fields

React Challenges

Very easy to write non-view related logic in React Components

 

As your app grows, state management becomes a non-trivial task

 

React ecosystem CAN be a put-off to new comers

 

Gives you great power - and with it comes great responsibility

 

ONLY a view rendering framework - you need to figure out the rest of your UI stack (like router, data fetching, state management, etc)

 

Encourages functional programming. Involves a relatively steep learning curve to make the most out of React.

Q & A

Getting Started With React

By Swarup Karavadi

Getting Started With React

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