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The History of the English language
of the Brittish Isles
The Celts - legend and myth
They've been called "barbarians" and savages
but who were these mysterious people
that where the first known
people to live on the British Isles?
(also known as the Britons)
by J.C. Leyndecker.
Women among the Celts could be both kings and warriors.
Remnants of the Celtic language
Latin and Greek
Roman ruins and architecture
Trade and battle with Romans
anchor, camp, chest, cook, copper, devil, dish, fork, gem, inch, kitchen, mile, mill, mint (coin), noon, pillow, pound (unit of weight), punt (boat), sack, street, wall, wine
Western germanic tribes
West germanic tribes from the lowlands of Europe migrated to Britain during the 5 Century. They were warlike and adventurous and wanted more land.
ca. 450 -
Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians
The dialects of Old English are more or less co-terminous with the regional kingdoms. The various Germanic tribes brought their own dialects which were then continued in England.
Thus we have a Northumbrian dialect
(Anglian in origin), a Kentish dialect (Jutish in origin).
Frisiian, Old Low german, Old norse
Viking invasions and Danelaw
Alfred the Great
A defender of the English language
The lord's prayer in Old English
The Bayeaux tapistry
William the conqueror
or Guillaume the Bastard
Was illiterate and never spoke English.
but had the greatest influence on the English language than anybody else before or since.
Battle of Hastings 1066
A hearty welcome
A cordial reception
The great Vowel shift
Deaths due to plague
Educated speakers of latin and french died?
Wars with France
General dialectal interactions
Maybe the old germanic languages have it "built into them"
- Den stora vokaldansen
During this time the language continued to change. How to pronounce words and how to spell them became uniform and grammar was simplified.
Not many texts of the early middle English period survived due to norman domination - french became the language of culture, commerce and politics.
xal - schal - shall
The Canterbury tales
The English renaissance
The Globe theatre
Influx of words
English started to spread
but also to absorb Words
from other languages.
Swear Words and cussing
Romeo och Julia
A language that has survived the test of time
and works just as well in modern 20'th Century films.
Indoeuropean, Western branch
West European, Germanic, West Germanic
Anglo-Frisian, Old English, English.
Copy of English history