Plagiarism 101:

Academic Integrity

at Touro College

Consider the following...

I paraphrased everything, so why do I need to use parenthetical citations?

 

If I include all of the sources I consulted in my bibliography, isn't that enough?

 

I didn't know anything about my subject when I started. If I provide a reference for everything I learned, my paper will be very hard to read. You don't want it to be that full of citations to do you?

 

I found some of the same information in several sources--in that case the information is common knowledge, isn't it?

What is plagiarism?

"Plagiarism is defined as the unauthorized use of the writings, ideas and/or computer-generated material of others without appropriate acknowledgement and the representation of them as one’s own original work. Plagiarism encompasses acts of inadvertent failure to acknowledge sources, as well as improper attribution due to poor citation."

 

--Touro College Academic Integrity Policy

Intentional Plagiarism:

Failure to Acknowledge Sources

 

This may include:

-Purchasing or re-using a paper

-Copying & Pasting without attribution

-Any other use of outside sources, of any medium, without acknowledgement

Unintentional Plagiarism: Failure to Cite Sources Properly

 

This may include:

-Missing quotation marks

-Insufficient paraphrase

-Missing or poor in-text citations

-Incomplete or improperly formatted bibliography

Consequences of Plagiarism

Ethical:

Failure to respect the intellectual property of others

Stealing or misusing other people's work

 

Academic:

All violations of academic integrity are reported and recorded

Possible sanctions range from failure of the assignment or class, to expulsion or revocation of degree for the most egregious cases

See full rights and procedures: www.touro.edu/students/policies/academic-integrity/

Why do students plagiarize?

Common Pitfalls Include:

-Being short on time due to other responsibilities or

poor time management

 

-Confusion over citation requirements and practices

 

-Lack of confidence in skills or understanding of the topic

 

-Poor note-taking and record-keeping during research

Academic writing is challenging, but with an understanding of the basic principles of citation and a little planning, avoiding plagiarism doesn't have to be complicated.

How Can I Avoid Plagiarism?

Research and Writing Take Time

Leaving assignments to the last minute is a key ingredient in the recipe for plagiarism

 

Start early enough to have the time to do the work right and seek out assistance if needed

 

If you take the time to read and understand the material, it will be easier to put in your own words and you'll be less tempted to copy directly from your sources, improving the quality of your work as well as avoiding the consequences of plagiarism

Know what needs citing

Cite Your Sources in 3 Easy Steps

1. If you use another author's words verbatim, even just a few, put it in quotation marks.

 

2. Any time you make use of an outside source, whether by quote, paraphrase, or summary, acknowledge it with an in-text citation or footnote.

 

3. List the full information for any sources used as a citation in your bibliography.

Playing By The Rules: Citation Styles

Meeting the minimum requirements for acknowledging your sources will help you avoid plagiarism, but your professors may also ask you to cite your sources in a particular style, like APA, MLA, AMA, or Chicago.

 

Citation styles provides rules for formatting papers and citations, including things like order, punctuation, and capitalization, but the information you need to provide stays the same.

APA Style

According to a 2005 survey, 36% of undergraduates admit to paraphrasing or copying few sentences from Internet source without footnoting it (McCabe, 2005, p. 6).

References

McCabe, D. (2005). Cheating among college and university students: A North American perspective. International Journal for Academic Integrity, 1(1), 1-11.

MLA Style

According to a 2005 survey, 36% of undergraduates admit to paraphrasing or copying few sentences from Internet source without footnoting it (McCabe 6).

Works Cited

McCabe, Donald. "Cheating Among College and University Students: A North American Perspective." International Journal for Academic Integrity 1.1 (2005): 1-11. Web.

Example: Style Guide Comparison

Tools For Creating Citations

Citation manual (by hand), like Purdue OWL APA/MLA, etc.

 

Citation generator (form-based*), like CitationMachine.net

 

Database tools (automatic*), found in QuickSearch, Ebsco, Proquest & more

 

Citation managers (automatic*), like RefWorks

 

*Still requires proof-reading. Consult your citation manual for final editing.

Identifying Plagiarism

Source Material

"Rap music, unlike disco or funk, is a new genre unto itself. Disco and funk were variations of an already existing, and therefore familiar, form--rhythm and blues. Rap music, in its purest form, presents an entirely new sound. This is one of the reasons rap music tends to be so misunderstood not only by the general public but also by "accomplished" music critics--it is completely unfamiliar" (Salaam, 1995, 306).

Student Paper

Salaam states that in its purest form, rap music represents an entirely new sound, which is why it's so misunderstood by expert listeners as well as the general listener. Because it isn't based on earlier forms of music, it's completely unfamiliar and a new genre unto itself (306).

Example: Is This Plagiarism?

Source Material

"Rap music, unlike disco or funk, is a new genre unto itself. Disco and funk were variations of an already existing, and therefore familiar, form--rhythm and blues. Rap music, in its purest form, presents an entirely new sound. This is one of the reasons rap music tends to be so misunderstood not only by the general public but also by "accomplished" music critics--it is completely unfamiliar" (Salaam, 1995, 306).

Student Paper

Salaam states that in its purest form, rap music represents an entirely new sound, which is why it's so misunderstood by expert listeners as well as the general listener. Because it isn't based on earlier forms of music, it's completely unfamiliar and a new genre unto itself (306).

 

bold = direct quote

This is plagiarism. Although there is an accurate in-text citation, the language is too similar to the original, and several sections should be in quotation marks.

Source Material

"Rap music, unlike disco or funk, is a new genre unto itself. Disco and funk were variations of an already existing, and therefore familiar, form--rhythm and blues. Rap music, in its purest form, presents an entirely new sound. This is one of the reasons rap music tends to be so misunderstood not only by the general public but also by "accomplished" music critics--it is completely unfamiliar" (Salaam, 1995, 306).

Revision

Salaam states that "in its purest form, rap music presents an entirely new sound." For this reason, listeners and music critic both frequently misunderstand it. Because rap isn't based on earlier forms of music, it's a unfamiliar sound and truly "a new genre unto itself" (306).

Revised version: This is an acceptable use of an outside source, combining paraphrase with direct quotation where appropriate

The following, considered:

I paraphrased everything, so why do I need to use parenthetical citations?

If I include all of the sources I consulted in my bibliography, isn't that enough?

Parenthetical or in-text citations are a necessary component in the citation process. They allow you to leverage the authority of your sources, adding credibility to your writing, and let your readers know which material came from other authors (and from whom).

 

I didn't know anything about my subject when I started. If I provide a reference for everything I learned, my paper will be very hard to read.

I found some of the same information in several sources--in that case the information is common knowledge, isn't it?

Information can be considered common knowledge, and therefore used without citation, if it's easily available in a reference source like a dictionary or encyclopedia - things like historical dates and definitions. Otherwise, citations are required. If you look at the background or lit review of any academic article, you'll see they're full of in-text citations!

Getting Help

Tools for citing sources in a variety of styles:

libguides.tourolib.org/citations

 

Resources for research, writing and citations:

libguides.tourolib.org/forstudents

 

Other Questions?

Your professors and librarians are here to help

Contact a librarian via chat, phone, email, or in person

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