Stats x Performance

Skeepers Influence Workshop



Variability and Percentiles

Pareto & Amdahl Laws

Uncertainty and Error

Profiling Your Code

Variability and Percentiles

Example: Height

Distribution of heights in USA, source

Unending source of worries for first time parents

Height Distribution

"Normal" distribution

Important Distributions

Gaussian (normal)

Poisson: random incoming

Binomial: random coins

Zipf: word frequencies

Pareto: riches

Percentiles and Service

The average gives a biased idea of the experience

Percentiles tell a more complete story

Speaking about time per request:
  • 50th percentile (median): half of all requests are above
  • 90th percentile: 1 out of every 10 requests is above
  • 99th percentile: 1 out of every 100 requests is above

Bad 99th percentile, at 100 requests per second:
One failure per second!

Exercise: Total Time

A request uses 10 servers in parallel

50th percentile is 50 ms
90th percentile is 200 ms

Estimate a minimum value for the average time per request

Exercise +

Simulate a Pareto distribution

xm = 28 ms

α = 1.16

As function U you can use Math.random()

Exercise +

Simulate 100k Pareto samples

Compute average, minimum, maximum

Compute percentiles: 5, 50, 90, 95, 99, 99.9

To compute percentiles:
  • Sort the array (as numbers!)
  • For 50th percentile, go to the middle of the array
  • For 90th percentile, go to position 90k
  • ...

Exercise +

Now simulate requests with 10 calls to servers in parallel
= the maximum of 10 Pareto samples

Compute minimum, average, 50th and 90th percentiles

Are they the same as before?

Exercise +

Finally, simulate requests with 10 sequential calls to servers

=> the result of adding 10 Pareto samples

Compute 50th percentile

Is it 10 times bigger than before?

Exercise +

As an extra: simulate a request to 10 sequential servers,
each doing 10 requests in parallel

What is the average, minimum, 50th percentile?

Exercise +

This last part is not fiction

In 2009 a Google search used 1000 servers

Total time 200 ms

Can you think of any way to improve the response time?

Timed out!

Package pareto-simulator

Install pareto-simulator:

$ npm i -g pareto-simulator 

Now test a few commands:

$ pareto --xm 28
$ pareto --xm 28 --parallel 10
$ pareto --xm 28 --series 10
$ pareto --xm 28 --series 10 --parallel 10
$ pareto --xm 1 -n 1000 --parallel 30 --series 30 --timeout 10 --linear 

What distributions do they remind you of?

Pareto Law

Rule of 80/20

A 20% of causes generates 80% of effects

Applies to a wide spectrum of phenomena:

Optimization Work

Now it's time for hard work: optimize a service

It consumes too much:
  • CPU
  • memory
  • file descriptors
  • input/output buffers
  • ...

Where do we start?

Locate 🔥hot spots🔥

That's Lucky!

🔥Hot spots🔥 follow the Pareto principle

20% of the code takes 80% of processing time

The law applies recursively...

4% of the code takes 64% of processing time

Is it worth it?

Amdahl Law

An Apparently Complicated Law


Exercise: Limits of Optimization

Request get in nodecached: 37250 rps

How much can we accelerate nodecached?

Exercise +

Let us focus on the get operation:
  • 2 µs: string conversion
  • 6 µs: internal processing
  • 7 µs: input
  • 12 µs: output

Let us suppose we optimize string and processing (0µs)

What is the theoretical maximum for requests per second?

Exercise +

Formula: R [rps] = 1000000 / t [µs]

Exercise of imagination:
What strategies can we follow to optimize more?


Law of Diminishing Returns

As we go along in optimization, return of investment goes down

This law is not very rigorous (but it's useful)

Careful with micro-optimization

Uncertainty and Error

Systematic and random errors

Systematic error

Random error

Types of Randomness

Exercise: Real Distribution

We want to measure the distribution of response times

Requests to service

Exercise +

Download the loadtest project:
 git clone

Tweak it to show the time for every request

Now send the tests:
node bin/loadtest.js -k -n 15000 -c 100 --rps 300 

Use rps above and below the value without --rps (e.g. 300 y 500)

Exercise +

Export the result to a file and extract all numerical values

$ command | grep -v INFO > service-times-300.csv 

Draw a histogram with the values

Draw a log-log histogram

What do graphs tell you?


Exercise +

Profiling Code

Profiling with microprofiler

Package microprofiler

Allows finding out where processing time is spent

Thin layer on process.hrtime()

Sections of code are instrumented:
const start = microprofiler.start() 
Start measuring:
microprofiler.measureFrom(start, 'label', 10000) 
Measures time between start() and measureFrom()
Shows a summary for label every 10000 calls

Native Profiling

Node.js includes a nice profiler:
$ node --prof ... 

It generates a file like isolate-0x440c2f0-28473-v8.log
It can be interpreted with the command:
node --prof-process isolate-0x440c2f0-28473-v8.log 

Output has three parts:
  • [Summary]: Summary of times
  • [JavaScript], [C++ entry points]: Sections by language
  • [Bottom up (heavy) profile]: Hierarchical profile


Flamegraph Packages

Package 0x

Live demo

Exercise: Saving Microseconds

We want to optimize the code for pareto-simulator

Where are we spending most time?

Two alternative approaches

Exercise +

Clone package pareto-simulator

$ git clone 
$ cd pareto-simulator

Install microprofiler

$ npm i microprofiler 

Read the instructions

Exercise +

Instrument the code:
const microprofiler = require('microprofiler');
	computeSamples() {
		for (let i = 0; i < options.number; i++) {
        	const start = microprofiler.start()
			const sample = this.computeSample()
			microprofiler.measureFrom(start, 'sample', 10000)
			this.sum += sample
			if (sample > this.max) this.max = sample
			if (sample < this.min) this.min = sample
			microprofiler.measureFrom(start, 'stats', 10000)

Run and see the results:
$ node index.js --xm 1 -n 1000 --parallel 30 --series 30 --timeout 10 --linear  

Exercise +

Now instrument the function computeSample()

Look for any surprises

Try to find some optimization...

And measure again


Now let's run the Node.js profiler:
$ node --prof index.js --xm 28 -n 10000000 

And now check out the output:
$ node --prof-process isolate-0x...-v8.log

Is anything surprising?

Can you imagine how to improve it?

Is this profiler as agile as microprofiler?

Good job!

Bibliography Pruebas de carga

Node.js: Flame Graphs

Netflix Tech Blog: Node.js in Flames

Skeepers Influence Workshop: Statistics for Performance

By Alex Fernández

Skeepers Influence Workshop: Statistics for Performance

Skeepers Influence Workshop: Statistics for Performance.

  • 810