The History of Information Graphics

Lesson 2
- key concepts

- information graphics and image theory

- historiography

Why we visualize information?

  • Exploration/Representation
    analysis, finding, seeing, understanding
  • Explanation/Argumentation
    highlight, enlight, demonstration, proof 

W

  • Data visualization is a visual rhetoric form which uses mostly abstract visual signs for highlight, demonstration, enhance, convince or debunk. 
  • polysemic vs. monosemic

Not how to see, but how to read the meaning of the visual signs - semiology/diagrammatology

Visual signs

point                                  line                                        shape                                     form

Attributes

position                               length                         direction                         angle

    shape                               size                                colour                         shade

Reading

Position              Length                Angle               Direction             Size                   Colour

Growth


Decreasement

 

Pattern

 

Outlie

 

Noize

Meaning

  • title
  • legend
  • annotation
  • axis
  • source
  • explanation

Process

Sign

Attributes

Meaning

Representative

Narrative

Argumentation

Style

Semiotics

Diagrammatology

In the family of images

?

In the family of images

  • art history
    Gombrich, Elkins (epistemic image)
     
  • visual cultural studies
    Mitchell, Boehm (pictorial turn, iconic turn)
     
  • Bildwissenschaft
    Bredekamp (technical image)

In the family of images

diagrams (schematic image)

plans

pictograms

genealogies

knowledge trees
maps

scientific images (microscope)

scientific illustrations (anatomical drawings)

?DATA VISUALIZATION?

Method

Brinton, engineer, 1919

Tukey, mathematician, 1970

Tufte, statistician, 1980

Cleveland, statistician, 1982

Few, statistician, 2004

Wainer, statistician, 2004, 2012

Yau, designer, 2011, 2013

Cairo, designer, 2012, 2016, 2018

Camoes, statistician, 2017

Knaflic, data scientist, 2015

Kirk, designer, 2016

Andrews, designer, 2019

History

Funkhauser, statistician, 1937

Friendly, statistician, 2000, 2002, 2020

Spence és Wainer, statisticians, 2005

Grafton és Rosenberg, historians, 2012

Rendgen, historian, 2018, 2019

Battle-Baptiste és Rusert, anthropoligists, 2018

Berkowitz, historian, 2018

Cairo, designer, 2018

Dick, information historian, 2020

History of ideas

Bender és Marrinan, historians, 2010

Lima, designer, 2012, 2013, 2017

Drucker, information theorist, 2014

Semiotics

Bertin, cartographer, 1967

Image theory

Elkins, art historian, 2001

Schmidt-Burkhardt, art historian, 2012

Bredekamp - technical image, 2015
Kemp
Gombrich

Cary

Perception

 

Ware, engineer, 1999

Kennedy és Hill, sociologist and data scientist, 2017

Murray Dick's classification

Mathematical-Statistical School

Funkhouser
Friendly

Methodological, graphical innovations

Heroes, firsts, innovators and villains

Focuses on the legendary

Does not take into account the mass production, the sociological and the cultural effect

Murray Dick's classification

Neurological-Psychological School

Wainer

History of seeing, values in mass production, popular infographics

Murray Dick's classification

Cultural history

Lima, Rendgen, Rosenberg and Grafton, Berkowitz, Cairo

Information graphics as cultural phenomenon

Interdisciplinary approach

Murray Dick's classification

Functionalist-Idealist discourse

Bertin, Tukey, Tufte

method and form

simplicity, abstraction

Murray Dick's classification

Pragmatist-realist discourse

Holmes, Cairo

communicative technology

Murray Dick's classification

Didactic-Persuasive discourse

Neuraths

language, propaganda, ideological

Murray Dick's classification

Expressionist-Aesthetic discourse

McCandless

art, play, fun, self-exrpession, joy, experiment

General classical history

Funkhouser, Friendly, Rendgen, Rosenberg and Grafton, Bender and Marrinan

linear storytelling

history of what the West knows

heroes, innovators, firsts, importants, gems, "golden ages", "dark ages"

History of shapes and forms

Lima - trees, circles, networks, hierarchies

linear storytelling

heroes, innovators, firsts, importants, "golden ages", "dark ages"

Monographs

Rendgen, Berkowitz, Wainer and Spence, Baptiste and Rusert

Focus on the heroes - Playfair, Minard, WEB Dubois, Humboldt, Neuraths

History of communication

Cairo, Dick

News communication, media, information technology

General critique

History of what the West knows about the West

'Art historians' disease'

History of Information Graphics 2

By Attila Bátorfy

History of Information Graphics 2

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