CircleCI Orbs vs

GitHub Actions vs Netlify Build Plugins

CI Setup

TestGuild Online Meetup

Gleb Bahmutov

VP of Engineering

Cypress.io @bahmutov

Continuous integration (CI): every commit should be built and tested automatically in a clean environment.

Coding without CI is like never changing the oil in your car. It is just a matter of time before it blows up.

me (paraphrasing Justin James)

from https://cypress.slides.com/cypress-io/cypress-on-ci

 

CI setup: dream

Reality 🤯

Dr. Gleb Bahmutov, PhD

these slides

🦉 @bahmutov

Lots of CI providers

  • Travis
  • CircleCI
  • BuildKite
  • Semaphore
  • AppVeyor
  • GitLab
  • Codeship
  • AzureCI
  • Shippable
  • Jenkins*
  • TeamCity*

* self-managed

NOT WORTH IT

Let's test a web app!

npm i -D cypress

describe('Todo App', () => {
  it('completes an item', () => {
    // base url is stored in "cypress.json" file
    cy.visit('/')
    // there are several existing todos
    cy.get('.todo').should('have.length', 3)

    cy.log('**adding a todo**')
    cy.get('.input').type('write tests{enter}')
    cy.get('.todo').should('have.length', 4)

    cy.log('**completing a todo**')
    cy.contains('.todo', 'write tests').contains('button', 'Complete').click()
    cy.contains('.todo', 'write tests')
      .should('have.css', 'text-decoration', 'line-through solid rgb(74, 74, 74)')

    cy.log('**removing a todo**')
    // due to quarantine, we have to delete an item
    // without completing it
    cy.contains('.todo', 'Meet friend for lunch').contains('button', 'x').click()
    cy.contains('.todo', 'Meet friend for lunch').should('not.exist')
  })
})

Every CI config file

  • git checkout
  • install dependencies and tools
  • build code
  • start app
  • test app
  • report results

Every CI config file

  • git checkout
  • install dependencies and tools
  • build code
  • start app
  • test app
  • report results

caching!!!

Every CI config file

  • git checkout
  • install dependencies and tools
  • build code
  • start app
  • test app
  • report results

caching!!!

when is it ready?

how to stop it?

Every CI config file

  • git checkout
  • install dependencies and tools
  • build code
  • start app
  • test app
  • report results

caching!!!

when is it ready?

how to stop it?

in parallel?

version: 2
jobs:
  test:
    docker:
      - image: cypress/base:10
    steps:
      - checkout
      # restore folders with npm dependencies and Cypress binary
      - restore_cache:
          keys:
            - cache-{{ checksum "package.json" }}
      # install npm dependencies and Cypress binary
      # if they were cached, this step is super quick
      - run:
          name: Install dependencies
          command: npm ci
      - run: npm run cy:verify
      # save npm dependencies and Cypress binary for future runs
      - save_cache:
          key: cache-{{ checksum "package.json" }}
          paths:
            - ~/.npm
            - ~/.cache
      # start server before starting tests
      - run:
          command: npm start
          background: true
      - run: npm run e2e:record

workflows:
  version: 2
  build:
    jobs:
      - test

Docker image

Caching

Caching

Install

run tests

maybe start app

Typical front-end web app testing using Cypress

defaults: &defaults
  working_directory: ~/app
  docker:
    - image: cypress/browsers:chrome67

version: 2
jobs:
  build:
    <<: *defaults
    steps:
      - checkout
      # find compatible cache from previous build,
      # it should have same dependencies installed from package.json checksum
      - restore_cache:
          keys:
            - cache-{{ .Branch }}-{{ checksum "package.json" }}
      - run:
          name: Install Dependencies
          command: npm ci
      # run verify and then save cache.
      # this ensures that the Cypress verified status is cached too
      - run: npm run cy:verify
      # save new cache folder if needed
      - save_cache:
          key: cache-{{ .Branch }}-{{ checksum "package.json" }}
          paths:
            - ~/.npm
            - ~/.cache
      - run: npm run types
      - run: npm run stop-only
      # all other test jobs will run AFTER this build job finishes
      # to avoid reinstalling dependencies, we persist the source folder "app"
      # and the Cypress binary to workspace, which is the fastest way
      # for Circle jobs to pass files
      - persist_to_workspace:
          root: ~/
          paths:
            - app
            - .cache/Cypress

  4x-electron:
    <<: *defaults
    # tell CircleCI to execute this job on 4 machines simultaneously
    parallelism: 4
    steps:
      - attach_workspace:
          at: ~/
      - run:
          command: npm start
          background: true
      # runs Cypress test in load balancing (parallel) mode
      # and groups them in Cypress Dashboard under name "4x-electron"
      - run: npm run e2e:record -- --parallel --group $CIRCLE_JOB

workflows:
  version: 2
  # this workflow has 4 jobs to show case Cypress --parallel and --group flags
  # "build" installs NPM dependencies so other jobs don't have to
  #   └ "1x-electron" runs all specs just like Cypress pre-3.1.0 runs them
  #   └ "4x-electron" job load balances all specs across 4 CI machines
  #   └ "2x-chrome" load balances all specs across 2 CI machines and uses Chrome browser
  build_and_test:
    jobs:
      - build
      # this group "4x-electron" will load balance all specs
      # across 4 CI machines
      - 4x-electron:
          requires:
            - build

Parallel config is ... more complicated

- install + run jobs

- workspace

- parallel flags

Typical front-end web app testing using Cypress

# all jobs that actually run tests can use the same definition
job_template: &job_template
  image: cypress/base:10
  stage: test
  script:
    # print CI environment variables for reference
    - $(npm bin)/print-env CI
    # start the server in the background
    - npm run start:ci &
    # run Cypress test in load balancing mode
    - npm run e2e:record -- --parallel --group "electrons on GitLab CI"
  artifacts:
    when: always
    paths:
      - cypress/videos/**/*.mp4
      - cypress/screenshots/**/*.png
    expire_in: 1 day

# actual job definitions
# all steps are the same, they come from the template above
electrons-1:
  <<: *job_template
electrons-2:
  <<: *job_template
electrons-3:
  <<: *job_template
electrons-4:
  <<: *job_template
electrons-5:
  <<: *job_template

YAML tips & tricks

Copy / paste / tweak until CI passes 🙁

# first, install Cypress, then run all tests (in parallel)
stages:
  - build
  - test

# to cache both npm modules and Cypress binary we use environment variables
# to point at the folders we can list as paths in "cache" job settings
variables:
  npm_config_cache: "$CI_PROJECT_DIR/.npm"
  CYPRESS_CACHE_FOLDER: "$CI_PROJECT_DIR/cache/Cypress"

# cache using branch name
# https://gitlab.com/help/ci/caching/index.md
cache:
  key: ${CI_COMMIT_REF_SLUG}
  paths:
    - .npm
    - cache/Cypress
    - node_modules

# this job installs NPM dependencies and Cypress
install:
  image: cypress/base:10
  stage: build

  script:
    - npm ci
    - $(npm bin)/print-env CI
    - npm run cy:verify

# all jobs that actually run tests can use the same definition
.job_template: &job
  image: cypress/base:10
  stage: test
  script:
    # print CI environment variables for reference
    - $(npm bin)/print-env CI
    # start the server in the background
    - npm run start:ci &
    # run Cypress test in load balancing mode, pass id to tie jobs together
    - npm run e2e:record -- --parallel --ci-build-id $CI_PIPELINE_ID --group electrons

# actual job definitions
# all steps are the same, they come from the template above
electrons-1:
  <<: *job
electrons-2:
  <<: *job
electrons-3:
  <<: *job
electrons-4:
  <<: *job
electrons-5:
  <<: *job
pipeline {
  agent {
    // this image provides everything needed to run Cypress
    docker {
      image 'cypress/base:10'
    }
  }

  stages {
    // first stage installs node dependencies and Cypress binary
    stage('build') {
      steps {
        // there a few default environment variables on Jenkins
        // on local Jenkins machine (assuming port 8080) see
        // http://localhost:8080/pipeline-syntax/globals#env
        echo "Running build ${env.BUILD_ID} on ${env.JENKINS_URL}"
        sh 'npm ci'
        sh 'npm run cy:verify'
      }
    }

    stage('start local server') {
      steps {
        // start local server in the background
        // we will shut it down in "post" command block
        sh 'nohup npm start &'
      }
    }

    // this tage runs end-to-end tests, and each agent uses the workspace
    // from the previous stage
    stage('cypress parallel tests') {
      environment {
        // we will be recordint test results and video on Cypress dashboard
        // to record we need to set an environment variable
        // we can load the record key variable from credentials store
        // see https://jenkins.io/doc/book/using/using-credentials/
        CYPRESS_RECORD_KEY = credentials('cypress-example-kitchensink-record-key')
        // because parallel steps share the workspace they might race to delete
        // screenshots and videos folders. Tell Cypress not to delete these folders
        CYPRESS_trashAssetsBeforeRuns = 'false'
      }

      // https://jenkins.io/doc/book/pipeline/syntax/#parallel
      parallel {
        // start several test jobs in parallel, and they all
        // will use Cypress Dashboard to load balance any found spec files
        stage('tester A') {
          steps {
            echo "Running build ${env.BUILD_ID}"
            sh "npm run e2e:record:parallel"
          }
        }

        // second tester runs the same command
        stage('tester B') {
          steps {
            echo "Running build ${env.BUILD_ID}"
            sh "npm run e2e:record:parallel"
          }
        }
      }

    }
  }

  post {
    // shutdown the server running in the background
    always {
      echo 'Stopping local server'
      sh 'pkill -f http-server'
    }
  }
}
language: node_js

node_js:
  # Node 10.3+ includes npm@6 which has good "npm ci" command
  - 10.8

cache:
  # cache both npm modules and Cypress binary
  directories:
    - ~/.npm
    - ~/.cache
  override:
    - npm ci
    - npm run cy:verify

defaults: &defaults
  script:
    #   ## print all Travis environment variables for debugging
    - $(npm bin)/print-env TRAVIS
    - npm start -- --silent &
    - npm run cy:run -- --record --parallel --group $STAGE_NAME
    # after all tests finish running we need
    # to kill all background jobs (like "npm start &")
    - kill $(jobs -p) || true

jobs:
  include:
    # we have multiple jobs to execute using just a single stage
    # but we can pass group name via environment variable to Cypress test runner
    - stage: test
      env:
        - STAGE_NAME=1x-electron
      <<: *defaults
    # run tests in parallel by including several test jobs with same name variable
    - stage: test
      env:
        - STAGE_NAME=4x-electron
      <<: *defaults
    - stage: test
      env:
        - STAGE_NAME=4x-electron
      <<: *defaults
    - stage: test
      env:
        - STAGE_NAME=4x-electron
      <<: *defaults
    - stage: test
      env:
        - STAGE_NAME=4x-electron
      <<: *defaults

Different CIs

Copy / paste / tweak until CI passes 😡

My Top 3 CIs Right NOW

Netlify 🥉

[[plugins]]
  # local Cypress plugin will test our site after it is built
  package = "netlify-plugin-cypress"
module.export = {
  onInit ...
     // install Cypress with caching
  onPreBuild ...
     // run end-to-end tests
  onPostBuild ...
     // run end-to-end tests
     // after Netlify builds the site
}

Plugin is a JavaScript file called by Netlify build system

[[plugins]]
# local Cypress plugin will test our site after it is built
package = "netlify-plugin-cypress"
  [plugins.inputs]
  record = true

Control behavior using parameters

Status checks on GitHub

My Top 3 CIs Right NOW

CircleCI 🥈

version: 2.1
orbs:
  cypress: cypress-io/cypress@1
workflows:
  build:
    jobs:
      - cypress/run

$ circleci config process circle.yml

version: 2.1
orbs:
  cypress: cypress-io/cypress@1
workflows:
  build:
    jobs:
      - cypress/run

CircleCI Orbs: text expansions + reusable shared configs

- cypress/install:
    build: 'npm run build'

- cypress/run:
    requires:
      - cypress/install
    record: true
    parallel: true
    parallelism: 4

Control behavior using parameters

My Top 3 CIs Right NOW

GitHub Actions 🥇

name: End-to-end tests
on: [push]
jobs:
  cypress-run:
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
    steps:
      - uses: actions/checkout@v1
      - uses: cypress-io/github-action@v1

GitHub integration 💪

  • code checkout
  • CI steps
  • ...
  • push code updates?!!

GH Actions are linked to the repo via GitHub Actions app installed automatically

automatic GITHUB_TOKEN

name: Parallel tests
on: [push]
jobs:
  cypress-run:
    strategy:
      matrix:
        machines: [1, 2, 3]
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
    steps:
      - uses: actions/checkout@v1
      - uses: cypress-io/github-action@v1
        with:
          record: true
          parallel: true
        env:
          CYPRESS_RECORD_KEY: ${{ secrets.cy_token }}

Control behavior using parameters

Balance tests on each OS

parallel-runs-across-platforms:
  strategy:
    matrix:
      os: ['ubuntu-latest', 'windows-latest', 'macos-latest']
      machines: [1, 2]
  runs-on: ${{ matrix.os }}
  steps:
    - uses: actions/checkout@v1
    - uses: cypress-io/github-action@v1
      with:
        record: true
        parallel: true
        group: Parallel 2x on ${{ matrix.os }}
      env:
        CYPRESS_RECORD_KEY: ${{ secrets.cy_token }}

recorded parallel runs

Netlify: Web Apps with simple build

CircleCI: Full CI with minimal hassle config

GitHub Actions: public repo on GitHub, need all 3 OS

I would pick:

More info:

CircleCI Orbs vs GitHub Actions vs Netlify Build Plugins CI Setup

By Gleb Bahmutov

CircleCI Orbs vs GitHub Actions vs Netlify Build Plugins CI Setup

In this meetup discover CircleCI Orbs vs GitHub Actions vs Netlify Build Plugins - what are they and how they simplify continuous integration setup with Gleb Bahmutov. Video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=McwE2tztlkA

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