Can we predict

the future?




We can make a qualified guess by looking at our past.

Great nations rise and then fall

Cultural diversity has played a major part in the developement of human civilization throughout history.

Famous predictors

of the future

Pythia - The Oracle of Delphi


Cassandra - The Cassandra syndrome



"Death Clock"

John Collier - Priestess of Delphi

Nostradamus by his son Cesar

Rasputin - Photo by unknown

Wilhelm Burger - Nornorna Urd, Verdandi och Skuld

Do you Believe it's possible to predict the future?

Since the 70's we're using the natural resources of one and a half planet.


Is our modern civilization doomed to collapse from an ecological perspective?

What can we do as a society?

What can we, as private Citizens, do?

What do you think is the most likely future downfall of our western civilization?

World War (nuclear/biological)

Technological threaths

Natural disaster

Global warming

Economic collapse


A slow deteriation of society is perhaps more likely?



How can we prepare for the future?



Qouto dave hollis



Snatch- and grab

and more...

The reading tactics differ from when you read fiction

How to read a scientific paper

How to approach a scientific text

Abstract - Gives you the Why (Syfte)


Conclusion - Gives you the How (Metod och resultat)

How to analyse a scientific paper

  • What is the content of the paper?
  • What kind of analysis is the author using?
  • Does the author prove his/her hypothesis?
  • Give examples

Research is building knowledge on previous science.

The goal of scientific research is to test your hypothesis through research.

The structure of a scientific paper is (almost) always the same.


Take a few moments before reading a text

to preview it, this can help you to tackle

difficult or lengthy texts.

This can be called Skimming (skumläsa)

you try to find out information about the text beforehand.





Same strategy as watching a movie trailer.


What's the genre? Type of text?

What is the overall 

Scientific Writing:

  • follows a distinct structure
  • should be well substantiated with sources
  • should show that you know how to find information in a  complex information flow
  1. Search - Sök
  2. Collect - Samla
  3. Sift - Sovra
  4. Sort - Sortera
  5. Structure - Strukturera
  6. Systemize - Systematisera
  7. Collocate - Sammanställa

 Seven S and C Skills

  • Search - Sök
  • Collect - Samla
  • Sift - Sovra


Imagine throwing a large fishing net over the web and then going through your catch, keeping the big fish and discarding the small ones.


This method is different from your standard google search and requires you to use your source checking skills.


In this stage you are sifting your collected material, trying to find as many sources as possible, that you rely on.


  • Sort - Sortera
  • Structure - Strukturera
  • Systemize - Systematisera


At this stage you apply your over all question or focus on your remaining sources. Try to see them trough the lens of your thesis. Also grouping them togheter by their importance and relevance to you.


In this stage you will start to see which sources will support your case or not.


Collocate - Sammanställa


Last stage of your skillset is to collocate your sources. After this you are ready to start your writing process.

Five skills of P

  1. Produce - Producera
  2.  Point out - Poängtera
  3. Profile - Profilera
  4. Prioritize - Prioritera
  5. Present - Presentera
  • Produce - Producera
  •  Point out - Poängtera
  • Profile - Profilera


Produce your scientific paper and point out your findings by profiling your academic field. 

  • Prioritize - Prioritera
  • Present - Presentera


Prioritize means "killing your darlings" and keeping focus throughout  your paper. Finally you are ready to present your paper. 

What is scientific research?

All scientific research is based on previous knowledge and rest on an idea of transparency and openness.

- Sir Isaac Newton

There are certain formalities about how to write and how to cite and refer to ones sources. 

There are certain formalities about how to write and how to cite and refer to ones sources. 



and refering to...


grammar and tempus

Bad science and plagiarism

Not referring to sources


 Not having enough data to draw accurate conclusions 


To pick and choose among results


Research that lacks relevance


Research that cannot be repeated

Click here to read more about plagiarism (in Swedish)

An example of "bad science"




Dr. Ancel Keyes published a study that showed that the risk of heart attack and stroke correlated directly with blood cholesterol levels. He based his conclusions on a study of people from seven countries. But later reviews showed that Dr. Keyes had ignored results from countries (like Sweden) that did not support his theses, that fat is bad for you. Since then the "truth" about fat and cholesterol has changed many times in accordance to the latest medical research.

Information Retrieval

Managing your sources starts right at the beginning,

keep a source journal and document your search process!


Don't surf the web aimlessly

- search the web purposefully!


Be imaginative, open and disciplined


Learn how to check your sources and 

where to find credible sources
(Källkritik och källtillit)

How to search with purpose

Weigh and value your search terms

What words would you use in everyday language?

What words would a scientist use?
A journalist?

An expert?


Are your serach words modern or old fashioned?
Are they formal or informal?
Is there any kind of bias in the term (positive or negative)?

Example: What is it like to be old?


  • Synonyms: old, matured, elderly, senior citizen, retired, ancient, crone, hag, matron, geezer, boomer, gentleman
  • Homonyms: old = old age, old = old fashioned
  • Euphemisms: The golden age, well-seasoned, advanced in years, one foot in the grave
  • Definitions: Gerontology (science of aging), Geriatric (medical term)
  • Associated words: Retirement, pension, medicare, wellfare, caregiver, caretaker, dementia, veterans

How to find

credible sources


(Use the link on your computer desk)


(Contact your school librarian for assistance)




(Have you found an expert on your study subject? Try e-mailing them or give them a call)

Remeber to use source critisism

Do not use emotive words:

“This is super exciting to write about”

“Finding credible sources was horribly hard”


Do not use vague terms:

“One would think that there might be a correlation between the results”,


“There could be a correlation between the results” or “A correlation between the results is possible”.  


Use academic terminology

instead of slang or spoken language. 


To make it easy for the reader to follow along in your text, abide to the principle of changing paragraph when you introduce a new line of thought.


Otherwise, follow the structure that is appropriate for your type of text. Academic texts usually look like this: Frame, Body, Sources and Appendices

New line of thought - new paragraph



Titel Page


Table of Contents



Purpose and thesis







This can vary.

Sources and appendices

Bibliography or Works Cited

Everything you use to base your knowledge on

is a source and should be referenced to in your research.

Cite your sources continually when you write and list all your sources at the end of your text in alphabetical order.


Depending on your chosen system of reference, your references will look different in your text. 

Source referencing

Harvard vs. Oxford

Exemple of Harvard:

Frans de Waal (2009, s. 86) tar som exempel ylande vargflockar och schimpanshannar som skränar tillsammans som liknelse för den samhörighet vi känner när vi spelar musik tillsammans.


Vargflockar som ylar i kör kan jämställas med den samhörighet vi känner när vi spelar musik tillsammans. (Frans de Waal, 2009, s. 86)

Exempel of Oxford:

Frans de Waal tar som exempel ylande vargflockar och schimpanshannar som skränar tillsammans som liknelse för den samhörighet vi känner när vi spelar musik tillsammans. ¹


¹  Frans de Waal, 2009, s. 86

Printed Sources (or Primary sources):

de Waal, Frans. (2009). Empatins tidsålder, hur naturen lär oss skapa ett humanare samhälle. Stockholm. Karneval.

Internet Sources:

Rydell, Malena. Bruce Springsteen: Born to Run.

Datum 1: 2016-09-28
Datum 2: 2016-09-27

Bibliography or Works Cited

Here's a tip!

When in doubt - ask a librarian!


Check out our website for more information. 



Can we predict the future

By Bessemerbiblioteket

Can we predict the future

  • 271
Loading comments...

More from Bessemerbiblioteket