South Africa

Geography

History

Early history

The British captured Cape colony

Boers resented that.

Bushmen

Hunter-gatherers

100 000 years ago

 

Slave trade - import

1658 First war

1713 Small pox epidemic

1820 British settlers arrive

1834 Slavery abolished

The Great Trek

The Zulu War & The Boer Wars

1652 First Dutch colony

Boer = Dutch word for farmer

Colonialization

Hard or Soft?

South Africa was colonized by first the Dutch (1700's) and later the Brittish empire (1800's). This has had many repercussions to this day. 

 

South Africa is today a member of the Commonwealth Nations. 

Commonwealth Nations

(A political association of 53 memeber states. Most of them formerly colonized by the Brittish Empire. The association focuses on intergovernmental and non-governmental relations between the nations. )

 

South Africa was granted Dominion status in 1910.

 

Was one of the original Dominions at the time of the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and Statute of Westminster 1931.

 

Left the Commonwealth in 1961 when South Africa became a republic.

 

Rejoined  in 1994 when Nelson Mandela was elected president by South Africas first nation wide election.

The Great Trek?

Boer Wars

Shaka Zulu

Voortrekkers vs. Zulu 1838

470 Boer pioneers led by Pretorius won over

<10 000 Zulus at the "Battle of Blood river"

Zulu Wars +

The Anglo-Zulu war 1879

The First Boer War 1880-1881

The Second Boer War 1899-1902

Rise of the Zulu Empire 1816-1828

History

1902 Boers surrended

to British rule

Brittish Concentration Camps, 27 000 deaths

1910 Union of south Africa

Cape, Transvaal, Natal Colonies, Orange Free State

1948 The National party

System of Apartheid

Segregation

1955 ANC - African National Congress Freedom charter

History

80 % Black, 9 % White, 9 % Coloured, 2 % Indian

History

Nelson Mandela, Madiba

1918-2013

Mandela was a member of the ANC,

After the Sharpeville massacre

he turned to the militarized side.

He was sentenced to lifetime for terrorism in 1964 and spent 27 years in prison. 18 years of his sentence was spent on Robben Island.

He was released in 1990 and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.In 1994 Nelson Mandela became the first president after the country moved towards representative democracy.

History

Sharpeville massacre

Murder at Sharpville by Godfrey Rubens

1960

Protests against restrictive passport laws came to a violent end when police started shooting in to the crowd.

69 died, many were injured.

The Aftermath lead to consequences for the economy

and eventually martial law was declared. In the wake of that,

mass arrestations were carried out. 18.000 people were arrested.

History

Time mark: 01:31 - 03:52

Musicians put the spotlight on Apartheid

1988

Eddy Grant made people all over the world to sing along to this song. The song was banned in South Africa because of the Anti-Apartheid message.

Biko

Stephen Biko's fate inspired Peter Gabriel to write this song. This song then inspired "Little Steven" Van Zandt to record Sun city.

 

Van Zandt formed Artists united against Apartheid.

yihla moja = Come Spirit

Xhosa

Artists refused to play in Sun City. Artists United against Apartheid  recorded the song Sun City which featured more than 40 artists. The song made over 1 million dollars in revenue which was donated to Anti-Apartheid work.

A strong Anti-Apartheid movement grew across the world.

Pressure in form of boycotts, by the UN among others,

of South African products.

Artist United Against Apartheid

1985

1985

1984

Language

South Africa has 11 official languages 

 

 

 

Afrikaans

English

Ndebele

Northern Sotho

Sotho

SiSwati

Tsonga

Tswana

Venda

Xhosa

Zulu

And a variety of English accents...

Language

When the Britons came to SA they wanted to spread the use of the English language.

They employed people in important jobs that spoke "standard english" like retired military personnel and aristocrats.

 

This has influenced the accent to our days.

South African English = SAE

Considered a extraterritorial version of English

Language

Black South African English = BSAE

 

Considered a "new" English because it came through the education system where English was taught to second language speakers.

Laws forbade native language teachers in schools.

English was taught by second-language speakers to second-language speakers.

 

This has influenced BSAE.

 

Language

Indian South African English = ISAE

 

Apartheid policy prevented Indian children from interacting with people with English heritage.

They started to speak their own variety of an indian south african english.

 

It resembles Indian English.

Language

Afrikaans, loanwords

 

Afrikaans is the language that evolved from the vernacular language that the first Dutch settlers spoke.

 

The SAE/English has a lot of loan words from Afrikaans:

 

Aardwark, Commando, Meerkat, Trek, Rooibos, Etc.

Vernacular = dagligt tal

Language

Slang

Time mark: 2:50

Post-Apartheid South Africa

Decades after Apartheid ended South Africa still suffers from the social inequalities of that era.

Poverty, Land ownership, Life expectancy,

Unemployment, income inequality.

The South African government has tried to enact reforms, for instance, land reform.

 

Xenophobia - Current affairs

Xenophobia = främlingsfientlighet

South Africa

By Bessemerbiblioteket

South Africa

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