Getting started with Django

Camilo Nova

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models.py

from django.db import models

class Reporter(models.Model):
    full_name = models.CharField(max_length=70)

    def __str__(self):              # __unicode__ on Python 2
        return self.full_name

class Article(models.Model):
    pub_date = models.DateField()
    headline = models.CharField(max_length=200)
    content = models.TextField()
    reporter = models.ForeignKey(Reporter)

    def __str__(self):              # __unicode__ on Python 2
        return self.headline

models API

# Import the models we created from our "news" app
>>> from news.models import Reporter, Article

# No reporters are in the system yet.
>>> Reporter.objects.all()
[]

# Create a new Reporter.
>>> r = Reporter(full_name='John Smith')

# Save the object into the database. You have to call save() explicitly.
>>> r.save()

# Now it has an ID.
>>> r.id
1

# Now the new reporter is in the database.
>>> Reporter.objects.all()
[<Reporter: John Smith>]

models API

# Fields are represented as attributes on the Python object.
>>> r.full_name
'John Smith'

# Django provides a rich database lookup API.
>>> Reporter.objects.get(id=1)
<Reporter: John Smith>
>>> Reporter.objects.get(full_name__startswith='John')
<Reporter: John Smith>
>>> Reporter.objects.get(full_name__contains='mith')
<Reporter: John Smith>
>>> Reporter.objects.get(id=2)
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
DoesNotExist: Reporter matching query does not exist.

# Create an article.
>>> from datetime import date
>>> a = Article(pub_date=date.today(), headline='Django is cool',
...     content='Yeah.', reporter=r)
>>> a.save()

# Now the article is in the database.
>>> Article.objects.all()
[<Article: Django is cool>]

models API

# Article objects get API access to related Reporter objects.
>>> r = a.reporter
>>> r.full_name
'John Smith'

# And vice versa: Reporter objects get API access to Article objects.
>>> r.article_set.all()
[<Article: Django is cool>]

# The API follows relationships as far as you need, performing efficient
# JOINs for you behind the scenes.
# This finds all articles by a reporter whose name starts with "John".
>>> Article.objects.filter(reporter__full_name__startswith='John')
[<Article: Django is cool>]

# Change an object by altering its attributes and calling save().
>>> r.full_name = 'Billy Goat'
>>> r.save()

# Delete an object with delete().
>>> r.delete()

admin.py

from django.contrib import admin

from . import models

admin.site.register(models.Article)

urls.py

from django.conf.urls import url

from . import views

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^articles/([0-9]{4})/$', views.year_archive),
    url(r'^articles/([0-9]{4})/([0-9]{2})/$', views.month_archive),
    url(r'^articles/([0-9]{4})/([0-9]{2})/([0-9]+)/$', views.article_detail),
]

views.py

from django.shortcuts import render

from .models import Article

def year_archive(request, year):
    a_list = Article.objects.filter(pub_date__year=year)
    context = {'year': year, 'article_list': a_list}
    return render(request, 'news/year_archive.html', context)

template.html

{% extends "base.html" %}

{% block title %}Articles for {{ year }}{% endblock %}

{% block content %}
<h1>Articles for {{ year }}</h1>

{% for article in article_list %}
    <p>{{ article.headline }}</p>
    <p>By {{ article.reporter.full_name }}</p>
    <p>Published {{ article.pub_date|date:"F j, Y" }}</p>
{% endfor %}
{% endblock %}

base.html

{% load staticfiles %}
<html>
<head>
    <title>{% block title %}{% endblock %}</title>
</head>
<body>
    <img src="{% static "images/sitelogo.png" %}" alt="Logo" />
    {% block content %}{% endblock %}
</body>
</html>

Installing Django

$ easy_install pip
...

$ pip install virtualenv
...

$ virtualenv miproyecto_env
New python executable in miproyecto_env/bin/python
Installing setuptools, pip, wheel...done.

$ cd miproyecto_env
$ source bin/activate

(miproyecto_env)$ pip install django
Collecting django
  Downloading Django-1.8.7-py2.py3-none-any.whl (6.2MB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 6.2MB 82kB/s
Installing collected packages: django
Successfully installed django-1.8.7

(miproyecto_env)$ django-admin startproject miproyecto

File Structure

miproyecto/
    manage.py
    miproyecto/
        __init__.py
        settings.py
        urls.py
        wsgi.py

Database setup

(miproyecto_env)$ cd miproyecto
(miproyecto_env)$ python manage.py migrate
Operations to perform:
  Synchronize unmigrated apps: staticfiles, messages
  Apply all migrations: admin, contenttypes, auth, sessions
Synchronizing apps without migrations:
  Creating tables...
    Running deferred SQL...
  Installing custom SQL...
Running migrations:
  Rendering model states... DONE
  Applying contenttypes.0001_initial... OK
  Applying auth.0001_initial... OK
  Applying admin.0001_initial... OK
  Applying contenttypes.0002_remove_content_type_name... OK
  Applying auth.0002_alter_permission_name_max_length... OK
  Applying auth.0003_alter_user_email_max_length... OK
  Applying auth.0004_alter_user_username_opts... OK
  Applying auth.0005_alter_user_last_login_null... OK
  Applying auth.0006_require_contenttypes_0002... OK
  Applying sessions.0001_initial... OK

Run Server

(miproyecto_env)$ python manage.py runserver
Performing system checks...

System check identified no issues (0 silenced).
November 28, 2015 - 18:17:17
Django version 1.8.7, using settings 'miproyecto.settings'
Starting development server at http://127.0.0.1:8000/
Quit the server with CONTROL-C.

Get involved

django-axes

https://github.com/django-pci/django-axes

django-extensions

github.com/django-extensions/django-extensions

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Getting started with django

By Camilo Nova

Getting started with django

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