The Illusion of Speed

Hacking Users' Perception

Elisabeth Engel

@_lizzelo_

10:25

https://unsplash.com/photos/scBTgeG5K5c

typing ...

Andrew II

10:25

Will I survive? 

10:25

The talk starts in 5 minutes and I'm really worried.

got distracted

@_lizzelo_

Distance

Time

Speed  =

time is measurable

https://unsplash.com/photos/p3Pj7jOYvnM

Imagine your own website

@_lizzelo_

What to do?

Be fast

Objective

=> Website Performance

@_lizzelo_

humans perceive time subjectively

https://www.flickr.com/photos/blakespot/46706560791

Which one is the fastest?

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Sure?

Option 3

Option 2

Option 1

Weber-Fechner Law

Just Noticeable Difference: +/- 20%

8 sec

10 sec

12 sec

imperceptible

Steve Seow

@_lizzelo_

What to do?

Be fast

Objective

Perception

Guide & Entertain

=> Website Performance

@_lizzelo_

https://unsplash.com/photos/nwWUBsW6ud4

Waiting

Active

Richard Larson, MIT

Overestimated by 36 %

Passive

1 second to transition

Nielson Norman Group

@_lizzelo_

How to stay active?

@_lizzelo_

Animate Transition

https://www.pinterest.de/pin/91760911136468054/

tell a story

https://unsplash.com/photos/9pw4TKvT3po

https://www.giantbomb.com/age-of-empires-ii-the-age-of-kings/3030-2846/

https://www.pugetsystems.com/labs/support-software/How-to-Install-Windows-XP-36/

Progress Indicators

puts users in passive state

@_lizzelo_

Spinner

https://loading.io/spinner/

easy & honest

http://mercury.io/blog/the-psychology-of-waiting-loading-animations-and-facebook

Progress Bar

http://assets.eli.wtf/talks/perceived-perf-2018/demos/progress.html

Which one feels fastest?

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Progress Bar

http://assets.eli.wtf/talks/perceived-perf-2018/demos/progress.html

Carnegie Mellon

Chris Harrison, Zhiquan Yeo, Scott E. Hudson

feels 12 % faster!

Option 3

Option 2

Option 1

https://www.waitamoment.co.uk/museums-monuments/walt-disney-world/walt-disney-world-crowds

Getting faster at the end

https://www.codeproject.com/Articles/1185064/Remote-File-System-viewing-and-file-transfer-using

you are inaccurate

https://xkcd.com/612/

The best progress bar is

no progress bar.

Luke Wroblewski

@_lizzelo_

Timewise

instant

immediate

kissmetrics

mental context switch

joy gets lost

5 sec

8.25 - 10 sec

1 sec

0.2 sec

Jakob Nielsen

@_lizzelo_

Rule of Thumb

3 sec

8.25 - 10 sec

1 sec

Transition

Spinner

Progress Bar

?

@_lizzelo_

Worst Case

@_lizzelo_

Come back to the user

when it's ready

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.

Arthur C. Clarke

@_lizzelo_

https://vimeo.com/3957551

Preemptive Start

Active

Passive

Not aware

perceived by the user

@_lizzelo_

Predict the future

user clicks

start loading

mousedown

hover

mouse

decelleration

Predict the future

https://github.com/SamKnows/futurelink

Early Completion

Active

Passive

Not aware

perceived by the user

Don't mind

🎉

@_lizzelo_

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lc_APy75e6o

What you see...

http://pishpeshuk.co.il/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/instagram-lie-photos-crop-slowlife-chompoo-baritone-fb.jpg

The truth...

Normal CSS

integration via link tag

<html>
  <head>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css">
  </head>
  <body>
    <header>
      [NAVIGATION]
    </header>
    ...

  </body>
</html>
    

Inline CSS

for above-the-fold content

<html>
  <head>
   <style>
      [INLINE CSS]
    </style>
  </head>
  <body>
    <header>
      [NAVIGATION]
    </header>
    ...
    <script>
        [MAGIC SCRIPT TO LOAD FULL CSS]
    </script>
    <noscript>
      <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css">
    </noscript>
  </body>
</html>
    

Inline CSS

for above-the-fold content

https://www.sitelocity.com/critical-path-css-generator

Inline CSS

for above-the-fold content

<style>@font-face{font-family:'Lato';src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Bold.eot);src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Bold.eot?#iefix) format("embedded-opentype"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Bold.woff2) format("woff2"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Bold.woff) format("woff"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Bold.ttf) format("truetype");font-style:normal;font-weight:600;text-rendering:optimizeLegibility}@font-face{font-family:'Lato';src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Black.eot);src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Black.eot?#iefix) format("embedded-opentype"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Black.woff2) format("woff2"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Black.woff) format("woff"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Black.ttf) format("truetype");font-style:normal;font-weight:900;text-rendering:optimizeLegibility}@font-face{font-family:'Lato';src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Regular.eot);src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Regular.eot?#iefix) format("embedded-opentype"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Regular.woff2) format("woff2"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Regular.woff) format("woff"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Regular.ttf) format("truetype");font-style:normal;font-weight:400;text-rendering:optimizeLegibility}@font-face{font-family:'Lato';src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Italic.eot);src:url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Italic.eot?#iefix) format("embedded-opentype"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Italic.woff2) format("woff2"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Italic.woff) format("woff"),url(/fonts/LatoLatin-Italic.ttf) format("truetype");font-style:italic;font-weight:400;text-rendering:optimizeLegibility}*{margin:0;padding:0;border:none;outline:none;list-style:none;text-decoration:none;background-repeat:no-repeat;box-sizing:border-box}html{font-size:10px;height:100%}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){html{font-size:8px}}body{font-family:'Lato',sans-serif;line-height:1.5;font-weight:400;background:white;width:100%;height:100%;text-align:center}.app_header{width:100%;height:80px;position:relative;max-width:1280px;margin:0 auto;text-align:left}.app_header .app_logo{display:block;width:200px;position:absolute;left:20px;top:22px}.app_header .app_logo a{width:100%;display:block;width:auto;position:relative;padding-top:11.8%;background-image:url(/assets/logo-c48a8c5d0d50eb87f6b1a99bb53959f3eaf46475e42d3cc236db4a8898a54de6.svg);background-size:100%}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){.app_header .app_logo{left:15px}}.app_header .nav_main{padding-top:20px;font-size:16px;line-height:40px;text-align:center;height:80px;width:100%}.app_header .nav_main ul{width:100%}.app_header .nav_main ul li{display:inline-block;padding:0 8px}.app_header .nav_main ul li a{color:#111;display:block;font-weight:600;border-bottom:4px solid white}.app_header .lang{position:absolute;right:20px;top:20px;background:rgba(0,0,0,.3);border-radius:20px}.app_header .lang li{display:inline-block;border-radius:20px}.app_header .lang li a{color:white}.app_header .lang li.active{background:#28C8FF}.app_header .lang li+li{margin-left:-3px}.app_header .lang a{font-size:14px;font-weight:600;display:block;height:40px;width:40px;line-height:40px;text-align:center;color:#111}@media only screen and (max-width:1070px){.app_header .nav_main{padding-top:60px;padding-left:7px;text-align:left}}@media only screen and (max-width:990px){.app_header{height:80px}.app_header .app_logo{width:160px}}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){.app_header{height:80px}.app_header .lang{top:14px}.app_header .nav_main{font-size:3vw}}main{text-align:center;font-size:1.6rem;padding:40px 0 0 0;min-height:100%;max-width:100%}main h1{font-size:4rem;text-align:center;margin:2rem 0 1rem 0;line-height:1.1;font-family:'Lato',sans-serif;font-weight:900}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){main h1{font-size:3rem;margin-top:2rem}}main h2{font-size:2.8rem;text-align:center;margin:1rem 0 2rem 0;line-height:1.1;font-family:'Lato',sans-serif;font-weight:900}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){main h2{font-size:2rem;margin-top:2rem}}main p.subtitle{text-align:center;font-size:2rem}main section{width:100%;max-width:720px;margin:0 auto;text-align:left;padding:0 20px}main section.section--wider{max-width:800px}main ul,main p{margin-bottom:1em}main strong{font-weight:600}.color.one{color:#28C8FF}ul#service-list{overflow:hidden;background-image:url(/assets/circle-a14b0fcaa734d509df6143b83fc36136d5a7ae91432b8c0565e1f584e645393c.svg);background-position:50% 50%;margin:40px 0 0 0;max-width:800px}ul#service-list li{float:left;width:50%}ul#service-list li h2{margin:0 0 4px 0;white-space:nowrap;font-size:2rem;padding:3px 0 0 0}ul#service-list li:nth-child(1){text-align:right;padding-right:110px}ul#service-list li:nth-child(1) h2{text-align:right}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){ul#service-list{background-position:50% 0;background-size:50% auto;padding-top:50vw;margin-left:10px;margin-right:10px}ul#service-list li{padding:0 10px 0 0!important;text-align:left!important}ul#service-list li h2{text-align:left!important}}.founder-quote{max-width:1040px;margin-bottom:40px;margin-top:80px}.founder-quote:before,.founder-quote:after{background-repeat:no-repeat;background-image:url(/assets/hr-508d753dbaf65d35fdfc0d227e29072b08e4e9ca17cc0e0f2814f79164da34b6.svg);background-size:106px auto;background-position:50% 55%;content:'';display:block;height:60px}.founder-quote__quote{color:#28A2FF;font-size:2.6rem;line-height:1.3;padding:0 16px 32px 16px;margin:0}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){.founder-quote__quote{margin-left:10px;margin-right:10px}.founder-quote__quote br{display:none}}.founder-quote__cite{display:-webkit-box;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-box-orient:horizontal;-webkit-box-direction:normal;-ms-flex-direction:row;flex-direction:row;-webkit-box-pack:center;-ms-flex-pack:center;justify-content:center;-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center}.founder-quote__founders{text-align:center;min-width:292px}.founder-quote__team{-webkit-box-flex:1;-ms-flex:1 1 50%;flex:1 1 50%;padding:6px 6px 24px 6px}.founder-quote__team--left{text-align:right}.founder-quote__team--right{text-align:left}@media only screen and (max-width:800px){.founder-quote__team{display:none}}.founder-quote__team-member{display:inline-block}.founder-quote__team-member-image{border-radius:35px;width:70px;height:70px;border:1px solid #eee}@media only screen and (max-width:990px){.founder-quote__team-member-image{border-radius:25px;width:50px;height:50px}}.founder-quote__image{background-image:url(/assets/founders-75272c2285fd183b3dd37e6788070d66861b79e3da0208a0bdc960146f5a8049.png);background-size:292px 160px;background-position:50% 0%;height:160px}.founder-quote__signatures{text-indent:-999em;background-image:url(/assets/founders-c34f2eed2664c511b6ab837bce70f01b13dc27931166466185c499daf84d03a5.svg);background-size:292px 47px;background-position:50% 0%;height:47px;margin-top:-16px;margin-bottom:-5px}.founder-quote__position{font-style:italic;font-size:1.2rem}.action_index .app_header{z-index:4}.action_index main{overflow:auto;margin-top:-80px}.action_index main #service-list{margin-bottom:40px;margin-top:20px}.action_index main section:not(.primary){padding:20px 0}</style>
    

Inline CSS

inline.css -> compiled into your HTML

@import "logo-inline";
@import "navigation-inline";
@import "searchbar-inline";
@import "top-content-inline";
    

normal.css -> loaded at the end of the HTML

@import "[everything-else]";
@import "footer";
    

Inline CSS

for above-the-fold content

https://slides.com/franklin_35/page-speeder#/

Inline CSS

for above-the-fold content

https://slides.com/franklin_35/page-speeder/

https://www.tandemseven.com/blog/how-to-use-disneys-principles-of-animation-to-improve-ux/

https://www.tandemseven.com/blog/how-to-use-disneys-principles-of-animation-to-improve-ux/

https://www.tandemseven.com/blog/how-to-use-disneys-principles-of-animation-to-improve-ux/

Skeleton Loading

HTML

<section>

  <skeleton-content>
    [ SKELETON ]
  </skeleton-content>

  <real-content style="display:none">
    [ REAL CONTENT ]
  </real-content>

</section>
    

Skeleton Loading

CSS


  @keyframes skeletonLoading {
    
    0%   {opacity: 0.5}
    50%  {opacity: 1}
    100% {opacity: 0.5}
  }

  skeleton-content .bar {
    display: block;
    width: 50rem;
    height: 5rem;
    animation: skeletonLoading 2s infinite;
    background-color: lightgrey;
  }

Skeleton Loading

Result

@_lizzelo_

https://www.youtube.com

optimize optimistically

https://unsplash.com/photos/Xbh_OGLRfUM

Optimistic UI

deceptive feedback

@_lizzelo_

Optimistic UI

@_lizzelo_

The ball was sooo fast, I didn't even see it.

Me - playing football table

@_lizzelo_

Change Blindness

http://www.syntagm.co.uk/design/articles/cb.htm

Mind the Context

@_lizzelo_

5 sec. to boot my computer

https://unsplash.com/photos/tYvUNvcGa-c

Too Slow

5 sec. to cook a chili con carne

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Bowl_of_chili.jpg

TooFast

https://www.moneypeach.com/free-use-coin-machines-near-me/

Fast = Easy = Cheap

@_lizzelo_

Longer wait times can build up:

 

Anticipation!

...

...

...

@_lizzelo_

TL;DL

Be fast

Objective

Perception

Guide & Entertain

Explain

Anticipation

@_lizzelo_

STL;DL

Illusion of Speed

=

f(Expectation, Reality, Perception)

@_lizzelo_

online

Andrew II

10:25

Will I survive? 

10:35

You will, no worries.

10:38

And if not, you have my number.

11:05

Oh no, wait. If not, enjoy heaven!

10:25

The talk starts in 5 minutes and I'm really worried.

Who are we

at the end?

@_lizzelo_

we are care takers

https://unsplash.com/photos/sAabA4Z8OfU

❤️

❤️

F1

Experiences?

Questions?

Remarks?

Recommedations?

Thanks to the Team

Slides:

@_lizzelo_

engel@interfacewerk.de

slides.com/elisabethengel/illusion-of-speed

Contact:

Content

  • http://cloudcannon.com/deconstructions/2014/11/15/facebook-content-placeholder-deconstruction.html
  • https://www.sitepoint.com/how-to-speed-up-your-ux-with-skeleton-screens/
  • http://dev.mobify.com/blog/beginners-guide-to-perceived-performance/
  • http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1797
  • http://codepen.io/Mestika/pen/ByNYBa
  • http://codepen.io/basham/pen/cGJjn
  • http://codepen.io/oslego/pen/XdvWmd

Code

More

Credits

interfacewerk GmbH

gutefrage.net GmbH

 

Benjamin Jentsch

Sebastian Ullherr

The Illusion of Speed - Hacking Users' Perception

By Elisabeth Engel

The Illusion of Speed - Hacking Users' Perception

Perceived page speed is all about the first visual impression. But what if you could make it seem to be even faster than it really is? What if we could make use of the strongly filtered and interpreted human perception of speed?

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