Composer Yourself

An introduction to using Composer with WordPress

Agenda

  1. What is composer?
  2. Structure of composer.json
  3. Some basic composer commands
  4. Where composer gets its stuff
  5. Tweaking composer for WordPress
  6. 3.75 Minute Install with WordPress Plugins
  7. Use composer to learn test-driven development

A dependency manager for PHP

Composer

  • It allows you to conveniently define requirements
  • It prevents you from accidentally committing into your git (or other version control)  repository:
    • 3rd-party libraries
    • plugins
    • themes
  • Centralized autoloader

Benefits of Composer

Install Composer

  1. https://getcomposer.org/doc/00-intro.md
  2. Follow instructions to manually install for your OS

Basic Composer Usage

Basic Files: composer.json

  • General recipe
  • You can edit this file
  • Commit this if changed

 

Sections of Note:

  • name
  • autoload
  • require
  • require-dev
  • config
  • scripts
{
  "name": "ericpoe/haystack",
  "description": "Forget Haystack vs Needle order, the object IS the Haystack. Haystack is a library that allows for pipelining and immutable structures.",
  "minimum-stability": "stable",
  "license": "MIT",
  "authors": [
    {
      "name": "Eric Poe",
      "email": "eric.poe@gmail.com",
      "homepage": "http://ericpoe.com"
    }
  ],
  "config": {
    "platform": {
      "php": "5.6.0"
    },
    "sort-packages": true
  },
  "require": {
    "ext-mbstring": "*",
    "php": "^5.6 || ^7.0"
  },
  "require-dev": {
    "phpunit/phpunit": "^5"
  },
  "autoload": {
    "psr-4": {"Haystack\\": "src"}
  },
  "autoload-dev": {
    "psr-4": {"Haystack\\Tests\\": "tests"}
  },
  "extra": {
    "branch-alias": {
      "dev-master": "3.0-dev"
    }
  }
}

Basic Files: composer.lock

  • Exact Recipe
  • DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE
  • Commit this if changed
{
    "_readme": [
        "This file locks the dependencies of your project to a known state",
        "Read more about it at https://getcomposer.org/doc/01-basic-usage.md#installing-dependencies",
        "This file is @generated automatically"
    ],
    "content-hash": "9d2be75a9b0de1706d9d0cacb4663433",
    "packages": [],
    "packages-dev": [
        {
            "name": "doctrine/instantiator",
            "version": "1.0.5",
            "source": {
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                "url": "https://github.com/doctrine/instantiator.git",
                "reference": "8e884e78f9f0eb1329e445619e04456e64d8051d"
            },
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                "reference": "8e884e78f9f0eb1329e445619e04456e64d8051d",
                "shasum": ""
            },
            "require": {
                "php": ">=5.3,<8.0-DEV"
            },
            "require-dev": {
                "athletic/athletic": "~0.1.8",
                "ext-pdo": "*",
                "ext-phar": "*",
                "phpunit/phpunit": "~4.0",
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            },
            "type": "library",
            "extra": {
                "branch-alias": {
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                }
            },
            "autoload": {
                "psr-4": {
                    "Doctrine\\Instantiator\\": "src/Doctrine/Instantiator/"
                }
            },
            "notification-url": "https://packagist.org/downloads/",
            "license": [
                "MIT"
            ],
            "authors": [
                {
                    "name": "Marco Pivetta",
                    "email": "ocramius@gmail.com",
                    "homepage": "http://ocramius.github.com/"
                }
            ],
            "description": "A small, lightweight utility to instantiate objects in PHP without invoking their constructors",
            "homepage": "https://github.com/doctrine/instantiator",
            "keywords": [
                "constructor",
                "instantiate"
            ],
            "time": "2015-06-14T21:17:01+00:00"
        },
        {
            "name": "myclabs/deep-copy",
            "version": "1.7.0",
            "source": {
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            },
            "require": {
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            "require-dev": {
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            "type": "library",
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                ]
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            "notification-url": "https://packagist.org/downloads/",
            "license": [
                "MIT"
            ],
            "description": "Create deep copies (clones) of your objects",
            "keywords": [
                "clone",
                "copy",
                "duplicate",
                "object",
                "object graph"
            ],
            "time": "2017-10-19T19:58:43+00:00"
        },
        {
            "name": "phpdocumentor/reflection-common",
            "version": "1.0.1",
            "source": {
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            "license": [
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            "require-dev": {
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            "license": [
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                    "name": "Mike van Riel",
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            "description": "With this component, a library can provide support for annotations via DocBlocks or otherwise retrieve information that is embedded in a DocBlock.",
            "time": "2017-11-10T14:09:06+00:00"
        },
        {
            "name": "phpdocumentor/type-resolver",
            "version": "0.4.0",
            "source": {
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        },
        {
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}
# While developing:
composer install

# Release to production:
composer install -o --no-dev

Install everything:

Basic Files: composer.lock

Dealing with merge conflicts in this file:

  • Typically, the merge conflict is the "content-hash"
  • Fix "content-hash" merge conflicts via:
{
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        {
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    "stability-flags": [],
    "prefer-stable": false,
    "prefer-lowest": false,
    "platform": {
        "ext-mbstring": "*",
        "php": "^5.6 || ^7.0"
    },
    "platform-dev": [],
    "platform-overrides": {
        "php": "5.6.0"
    }
}
composer update --lock

Symbology of Version Definition

Exact Version:

  • 2.5.4

Comparison Version Range:

  • >=2.5.4
  • >=2.5.4 < 3.0 || >=3.1

Hyphenated Version Range:

  • 2.5.4 - 2.5.7

Wildcard Version Range:

  • 2.5.*
{
  "name": "ericpoe/haystack",
  "description": "Forget Haystack vs Needle order, the object IS the Haystack. Haystack is a library that allows for pipelining and immutable structures.",
  "minimum-stability": "stable",
  "license": "MIT",
  "authors": [
    {
      "name": "Eric Poe",
      "email": "eric.poe@gmail.com",
      "homepage": "http://ericpoe.com"
    }
  ],
  "config": {
    "platform": {
      "php": "5.6.0"
    },
    "sort-packages": true
  },
  "require": {
    "ext-mbstring": "*",
    "php": "^5.6 || ^7.0"
  },
  "require-dev": {
    "phpunit/phpunit": "^5"
  },
  "autoload": {
    "psr-4": {"Haystack\\": "src"}
  },
  "autoload-dev": {
    "psr-4": {"Haystack\\Tests\\": "tests"}
  },
  "extra": {
    "branch-alias": {
      "dev-master": "3.0-dev"
    }
  }
}

Symbology of Version Definition

Next Significant Release

  • Tilde: ~2.5
    • Same as: >=2.5 <3.0.0
  • Tilde: ~2.5.5
    • Same as: >=2.5.5 <2.6.0 
  • Carat: ^2
    • Same as: ~2.0
    • Same as: >= 2.0.0 <3.0.0
    • Use ONLY if the package uses semantic versioning
  • Carat: ^2.5.4
    • Same as: >=2.5.4 <3.0.0
{
  "name": "ericpoe/haystack",
  "description": "Forget Haystack vs Needle order, the object IS the Haystack. Haystack is a library that allows for pipelining and immutable structures.",
  "minimum-stability": "stable",
  "license": "MIT",
  "authors": [
    {
      "name": "Eric Poe",
      "email": "eric.poe@gmail.com",
      "homepage": "http://ericpoe.com"
    }
  ],
  "config": {
    "platform": {
      "php": "5.6.0"
    },
    "sort-packages": true
  },
  "require": {
    "ext-mbstring": "*",
    "php": "^5.6 || ^7.0"
  },
  "require-dev": {
    "phpunit/phpunit": "^5"
  },
  "autoload": {
    "psr-4": {"Haystack\\": "src"}
  },
  "autoload-dev": {
    "psr-4": {"Haystack\\Tests\\": "tests"}
  },
  "extra": {
    "branch-alias": {
      "dev-master": "3.0-dev"
    }
  }
}

Symbology of Version Definition

Do you like surprises?

  • Bleeding Edge: dev-master
  • YOLO: *
{
  "name": "ericpoe/haystack",
  "description": "Forget Haystack vs Needle order, the object IS the Haystack. Haystack is a library that allows for pipelining and immutable structures.",
  "minimum-stability": "stable",
  "license": "MIT",
  "authors": [
    {
      "name": "Eric Poe",
      "email": "eric.poe@gmail.com",
      "homepage": "http://ericpoe.com"
    }
  ],
  "config": {
    "platform": {
      "php": "5.6.0"
    },
    "sort-packages": true
  },
  "require": {
    "ext-mbstring": "*",
    "php": "^5.6 || ^7.0"
  },
  "require-dev": {
    "phpunit/phpunit": "^5"
  },
  "autoload": {
    "psr-4": {"Haystack\\": "src"}
  },
  "autoload-dev": {
    "psr-4": {"Haystack\\Tests\\": "tests"}
  },
  "extra": {
    "branch-alias": {
      "dev-master": "3.0-dev"
    }
  }
}

Play with Caution!

Basic Composer Commands

composer help <command>
composer self-update
composer init
composer install
composer require [--dev] vendor/packageName "^majorVersion"
composer remove [--dev] vendor/packageName
composer outdated
composer update [--dev] vendor/packageName [--dry-run]
composer dump-autoload

Help!

Get help on any Composer command:

  • composer help <command>
  • ex:
    • composer help self-update

Starting Wizard

Start creating your basic composer.json directly from the command line:

  • composer init

Install Package

Install the latest package available:

  • composer require vendor/packageName

Install a package in a range:

  • composer require vendor/packageName "^majorVersion"

If it's only needed for dev-work, but not for production:

  • composer require --dev vendor/packageName
  • composer require --dev vendor/packageName "^majorVersion"

Remove Package

  1. Remove the package
    • composer remove [--dev] vendor/packageName
  2. Run tests!
  3. Commit the changes

Update Package

  1. Change the package version in the "require" or "require-dev" section of composer.json
    • composer update [--dev] vendor/packageName --dry-run
  2. Test to see if the package can be updated without conflict
  3. Update the conflicting packages first
  4. Look at the package's repo/docs for BC breaks and upgrade tips
  5. Finally, update the package
    •  composer update [--dev] vendor/packageName
  6. Run tests to ensure everything still works
  7. Commit the changes

Check for Updates

To see which packages are outdated:

  • composer outdated

 

Output colors:

  • Green: up-to-date
  • Red: at least 1 minor or patch update behind
  • Yellow: at least 1 major update behind

From Where Composer Installs

Out of the Box: Packagist

Screenshot of the ericpoe/haystack page on packagist.org

Packagist is a great source to check on composer packages

 

WordPress Packagist

Packagist for WordPress

 

Inform composer.json it is a potential repository:

Screenshot of a recent search on wpackagist.org
"repositories: [{
  "type": "composer",
  "url": "https://wpackagist.org"
}],
  • wpackagist plugins are prefixed by "wpackagist-plugin/"
  • wpackagist themes are prefixed by "wpackagist-theme/"

Let's Build a WordPress Site!

Sections to Add to composer.json

"repositories": [{
  "type": "composer",
  "url": "https://wpackagist.org"
}],
"config": {
  "platform": {
    "php": "5.6"
  },
  "sort-packages": true
},
"extra": {
  "wordpress-install-dir": "wordpress",
  "installer-paths": {
    "wordpress/wp-content/plugins/{$name}/": ["type: wordpress-plugin"],
    "wordpress/wp-content/themes/{$name}/": ["type: wordpress-theme"]
  }
}

Add composer installer for WordPress

composer require johnpbloch/wordpress

1 Minute Composer Install

2.75 Min Plugin Composer Install

Composer As Basic Tool

A Code Kata with PHPUnit

What Are Kata

Kata are short exercises to help train the mind and muscle memory

FizzBuzz Kata

Rules are simple:

  1. Given: a range of numbers, 1 - 100
  2. All numbers divisible by 3 are called "Fizz"
  3. All numbers divisible by 5 are called "Buzz"
  4. All numbers divisible by 15 are called "FizzBuzz"
  5. All other numbers are unchanged

Composer.json

{
    "name": "ericpoe/fizzbuzz-kata",
    "description": "A fizzbuzz kata to introduce phpunit",
    "type": "project",
    "license": "MIT",
    "authors": [{
        "name": "Eric Poe",
        "email": "eric.poe@gmail.com"
    }],
    "require": {},
    "require-dev": {},
    "autoload": {
        "psr-4": {"FizzBuzz\\": "src"}
    },
    "autoload-dev": {
        "psr-4": {"FizzBuzz\\Tests\\": "tests"}
    },
    "config": {
        "platform": {
            "php": "5.6"
        }
    }
}

Set up Testing Environment

  1. Add dev requirement for phpunit
    • composer require --dev phpunit/phpunit
  2. Create basic phpunit.xml file so that namespaces are autoloaded
<phpunit 
    bootstrap="vendor/autoload.php" 
    colors="true"
>
    <testsuites>
        <testsuite name="Test Suite">
            <directory>tests</directory>
        </testsuite>
    </testsuites>
    <filter>
        <whitelist>
            <directory>src</directory>
        </whitelist>
    </filter>
</phpunit>

Test Driven Development

  1. First write a small test that fails
  2. Then write the minimal code to make the test pass
  3. Then write another small test that fails
  4. GOTO 2 until feature is complete

Let's Code!

Tests and Solution from this group coding session are available at:

https://github.com/ericpoe/wordcampkc-fizzbuzz-kata

Thank You!

Eric Poe

  • KC PHP UG Co-Organizer
  • Curriculum Director for CoderDojoKC
  • eric.poe@gmail.com
  • @eric_poe

Composer Yourself

By Eric Poe

Composer Yourself

An introduction to using Composer with WordPress and an introduction to using Composer with test-driven development.

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