explosions

in our data

Federica B. Bianco

University of Delaware

Physics and Astronomy 

Biden School of Public Policy and Administration

Data Science Institute

NYU Center for Urban Science and Progress

Rubin Observatory LSST Science Collaborations Coordinator

 

Rubin LSST Transients and Variable Stars Science Collaborations Chair 

From Flammarion's Astronomie Populaire (1880): in Scania, Denmark

Workshop of Diebold Lauber unknown artist, ca.1450

White Tanks Regional Park, Phoenix, AZ

Title Text

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SN 185

SN 393

SN 1006

SN 1054

SN 1181

Tycho SN

Kepler SN

Cas A

SNLS/SDSS

PTF

ZTF

Rubin LSST

starting in

2023

100 Msun

0.08 Msun

mass

slow death fading away

explosive death

Twinkle twinkle little star  

I'm aware of what you are

you are a glowing ball of gas

how you live depends on mass

Adapted from Prof. Viviana Aquaviva, CUNY

luminosity

temperature

lives of stars

Just like stars in Hollywood :

the biggest stars live fast and die young and spectacularly

Gravity is pushing in

Nuclear reactions push the star outward

H->He->C->N->O->…Fe

Hydrostatic Equilibrium

Nuclear reactions push the star outward

Elements up to iron are forged in star cores.

Iron is so tightly bound that it absorbs energy instead of generating it in fusion : temperature drops instead of rising, gravitational pressure wins

I. we are made of star dust

high initial mass

8-100 MSun

live fast and die in spectacular explosions

t_\mathrm{MS; Sun} = \mathrm{10 ~Billion~ years}

lives of stars

\frac{t_\mathrm{MS}}{t_\mathrm{Sun}} = \left(\frac{M_\mathrm{Sun}}{M}\right)^{2.5}

….. live to be old and die peacefully by slowly cooling down

low initial mass

0.1-8 MSun

t_\mathrm{MS; Sun} = \mathrm{10 ~Billion~ years}

lives of stars

\frac{t_\mathrm{MS}}{t_\mathrm{Sun}} = \left(\frac{M_\mathrm{Sun}}{M}\right)^{2.5}

White Dwarf: supported by electron degenerate pressure - The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons with the same spin can occupy the same energy state in the same volume.

Maximum mass: Chandrasekhar limit M = 1.44 MSun

Neutron star: supported by neutron degenerate pressure - The Pauli exclusion principle exists for neutrons as well.

 

1 Earth radius

size of manhattan

Black whole

star remnants:

           extreme physics environments

low initial mass but with a sibling 

even a low mass start will explode if its in a binary system and captures mass from the companion

lives of stars

high initial mass

8-100 MSun

might collapse directly into a black hole

lives of stars

Reason to study Supernovae

SN are enable life in the Universe

 

 

SN are natural extreme physics laboratories

 

 

SN trace the evolution of the Universe

I. we are made of star dust

“The nitrogen in our DNA, the calcium in our teeth, the iron in our blood, the carbon in our apple pies were made in the interiors of collapsing stars.

We are made of starstuff.”

Carl Sagan, Cosmos

Elements up to iron are forged in star cores.

Heavier elements, particularly Nickel and Cobalt, are forged in the explosion.

More powerful explosions generate yet heavier elements.

All are released into outer space in stellar explosions and eruptions 

I. we are made of star dust

Pankey, Titus, Jr.

Howard University thesis

Possible Thermonuclear Activities in Natural Terrestrial Minerals. 1962

II. understanding extreme physics

SN lightcurves

II. understanding extreme physics

typical energy released: 

10^{51}~\mathrm{erg} = 10^{30} \mathrm{Megaton }

1 Megaton bomb would distroy everything in an 80km radius

II. understanding extreme physics

II. understanding extreme physics

SN spectra

III. they tell us fundamental things about the Universe

Farthest SN

 

10.5 billion years ago

 

3 billion years after the Big Bang

 

redshift 4

 

 

 

III. they tell us fundamental things about the Universe

luminosity ~ time

III. they tell us fundamental things about the Universe

stellar explosions are enable life in the Universe

stellar explosions are natural extreme physics laboratories

stellar explosions trace the evolution of the Universe

contact me!

fbianco@udel.edu


University of Delaware


Rubin LSST

Science Collaborations


Transients and

Variable Stars

Science Collaborations


II. understanding extreme physics

SN 2011dh, M51

vanDyk et al. 2011

explosions in my data

By federica bianco

explosions in my data

SN science for Rubin teachers workshop

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