Around the cluster in 80 ms

The journey of a packet

Monica Gangwar

About me

Not just your average Software Developer ...

Not just your average Devops Engineer ...

To save the cluster... I had to become something else... someone else ...

And I became Jugadu Engineer as well ...

Full stack Engineer @

A long time ago ...

Terminology

  • Kubernetes
  • Pod
  • Service

Problem

Service A wants to send a packet to Service B

Simple easy path :D

If only it was that easy

Each component has the tendency to either add latency or block the packet altogether!

The route not taken:

 Packet traces explained

...

Kernel
DNS Resolver
Kube Proxy
CNI
Voila!

The Treacherous path: First stop

Service IP
Pod IP
DNS lookup
Pod IP

Objective : Send packet to serviceB

Kernel

Latencies in dns lookups

  • DNS lookups performed by libc/musl for serviceB
  • Lookups for A(IPv4) and AAAA(IPv6) from the same socket
  • Race condition when DNAT/SNAT translations happen in kernel
  • Added latency due to retries in DNS lookups

"I don't have any authority over Linux other than this notion that I know what I'm doing."

- Linus Torvalds

- Monica Gangwar
 

Kernel (contd)

How to debug it

  • tcpdump port 53
  • conntrack -S

How to avoid it

  • single-request-reopen
  • grpc dns resolver
# linux
---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      dnsConfig:
        options:
        - name: single-request-reopen
        
# grpc on linux
---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      containers:
      - env:
      	- name: GRPC_DNS_RESOLVER
      	  value: native
        name: sample-grpc-app
      dnsConfig:
        options:
        - name: single-request-reopen
        
Kernel
DNS Resolver
Kube Proxy
CNI
Voila!

The Treacherous path: Second stop

Service IP
Pod IP
DNS lookup
Pod IP

Objective : Resolve serviceB to service IP

Dns resolver

Parameters KubeDns CoreDns
Negative Caching Absent Present
CPU Single threaded in C Multi threaded in Go
Memory Multiple containers Single container
Latency Better for internal DNS Better for external DNS

Overall : CoreDns Wins!

Dns resolver (contd)

Avoid latency due to DNS resolver

  • ndots property of kubernetes causes DNS resolution for multiple domain:
  • serviceB.default.svc.cluster.local -> serviceB.default.svc.cluster.local. 
  • caching
  • internal zone specification for internal CIDR, eg: mindtickle.com
apiVersion: v1
data:
  Corefile: |
    .:53 {
      log
      health
      errors
      reload
      cache 30
      prometheus :9153
      kubernetes cluster.local 100.64.0.0/13 {
        pods verified
        resyncperiod 1m
      }
      autopath @kubernetes
      forward . /etc/resolv.conf
      }
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: coredns
Kernel
DNS Resolver
Kube Proxy
CNI
Voila!

The Treacherous path: Third stop

Service IP
Pod IP
DNS lookup
Pod IP

Objective : Resolve service IP to Pod IP

Kube Proxy

  • Runs in three modes - userspace, iptables, ipvs
  • Userspace (obsolete)
    • kube proxy itself act as a proxy
    • higher latency due to switching b/w kernel and go binary
  • iptables (default)
    • rules added for NAT rerouting via packet manipulation
    • can only round robin over backends with complexity O(n)
  • ipvs
    • netfilter configuration instead of rules in iptables
    • can loadbalance using multiple schemes with complexity O(1)

Debug Kube proxy

  • Userspace (obsolete)
    • ​kube-proxy logs
  • iptables (default)
    • conntrack -L
    • iptables-save
    • bottleneck when load ~ 5000 nodes * 2000 services * 10 pods each
  • ipvs
    • dummy interface in each node
    • IPVS virtual addresses for each service
    • ipvsadm -ln

Kube proxy (iptables) in action

iptables-save

-A KUBE-SERVICES -d 100.65.207.102/32 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 8080 -j KUBE-SVC-ZTQKF64YG2DSI7SY
-A KUBE-SVC-ZTQKF64YG2DSI7SY -m statistic --mode random --probability 0.50000000000 -j KUBE-SEP-A7VB3EEHPCZHU76Q
-A KUBE-SVC-ZTQKF64YG2DSI7SY -j KUBE-SEP-KPI6I3B54SPPUXJ2

:KUBE-SEP-A7VB3EEHPCZHU76Q - [0:0]
-A KUBE-SEP-A7VB3EEHPCZHU76Q -s 100.125.192.6/32 -j KUBE-MARK-MASQ
-A KUBE-SEP-A7VB3EEHPCZHU76Q -p tcp -m tcp -j DNAT --to-destination 100.125.192.6:8080
-A KUBE-SVC-ZTQKF64YG2DSI7SY -m statistic --mode random --probability 0.50000000000 -j KUBE-SEP-A7VB3EEHPCZHU76Q

:KUBE-SEP-KPI6I3B54SPPUXJ2 - [0:0]
-A KUBE-SEP-KPI6I3B54SPPUXJ2 -s 100.98.136.0/32 -j KUBE-MARK-MASQ
-A KUBE-SEP-KPI6I3B54SPPUXJ2 -p tcp -m tcp -j DNAT --to-destination 100.98.136.0:8080
-A KUBE-SVC-ZTQKF64YG2DSI7SY -j KUBE-SEP-KPI6I3B54SPPUXJ2
Kernel
DNS Resolver
Kube Proxy
CNI
Voila!

The Treacherous path: Last stop ... finally

Service IP
Pod IP
DNS lookup
Pod IP

Objective : Reach correct container on correct node using Pod Ip

CNI - Container networking interface

In depth article here

CNI - How to troubleshoot ?

Logs, logs and logs ...

Wide variety of Add ons available for CNI and each have their own way of implementing networks

 

Conclusion

  • Kubernetes is not foolproof
  • Kubernetes is not that complex either

  • Networking is hard

  • Networking is fun

  • Abstracted Networking sucks

Thanks, I'm out!

Around the cluster in 80 ms : The journey of a packet

By Monica Gangwar

Around the cluster in 80 ms : The journey of a packet

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