Wode "Nimo" Ni

Xuanyuan Zhang

A vector graphics animation library written in modern C++.

Why vector graphics?

Small, Scale-invariant 

How to animate?

SVG + JS, SVG + CSS, SVG + SMIL (self-contained!)

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<svg version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">
	<rect x="20" y="20" rx="3" ry="3"
		  width="100" height="100"
		  fill="red" stroke="black" stroke-width="5"
		  id="rect_8">
		<animateTransform
			attributeName="transform"
			type="rotate"
			dur="10s"
			from="0 100 100"
			repeatCount="indefinite"
			to="360 100 100" />
	</rect>
</svg>

How people create SVG

JavaScript is the first choice

  • major front-end language
  • easy to pick up (?)

But why we stick with C++ ?

Advantages of C++

Too much...

For this specific task:

  1. Restrictions on rampant SVG styles.
  2. Utilizing OOP features for better design.
  3. Write SVGs in the language that you love!

Existing projects in C++?

There has not been any library in C++ focusing on general purpose SVG manipulation and animation

 

SVG++: SVG parser mainly for import and export. 

Qt: static SVGs, animation supported in QML.

 

Goal

 

Provide intuitive abstractions for reading, modifying, composing, and

                     SVG files!

Library structure

  • <animate.hpp> 
    • <anipp/parser.hpp>
    • <anipp/shapes.hpp>
    • <anipp/utils.hpp>

Depends on pugixml 1.9 to parse raw XML files

Basic Shapes - Rectangle

Rect r(20, 20, 100, 100, 3, 3);
r.attr({
    {"fill", "red"},
    {"stroke", "black"},
    {"stroke-width", "5"}
});
  • Standard SVG API:
    • (x, y, width, length, rx, xy)
    • rx, ry for rounded corners
  • Free attribute specification
    • nested list initialization
    • std::map

Other Basic Shapes

  • API similar to Rectangle
  • Other shapes supported:
    • Polygon: (x, y)+
    • Polyline: (x, y)+
    • Text: <any-string>
    • Line: (x1, y1), (x2, y2)

Other Basic Shapes

  • API similar to Rectangle
  • Other shapes supported:
    • Polygon: (x, y)+
    • Polyline: (x, y)+
    • Text: <any-string>
    • Line: (x1, y1), (x2, y2)

What's this?

Basic Shapes - Paths

"Give me a good library and with Bézier curves I will draw the whole world"

                 -- vector graphics designers

  • Full support to parse and compose:
    • Lines
    • Quadratic and Cubic Bézier curves
    • Elliptical curves
    • closePath

Path Commands

Path& moveTo(double x, double y, bool relative=false);
Path& lineTo(double x, double y, bool relative=false);
Path& quadraticCurveTo(double cpx, double cpy, double x, 
    double y, bool relative=false);
Path& cubicCurveTo(double cp1x, double cp1y, double cp2x, 
    double cp2y,  double x, double y, bool relative=false);
Path& arcTo(double rx, double ry, double x_axis_rotation, 
    double large_arc_flag, double sweep_flag, 
    double x, double y, bool relative=false);
Path& closePath();

How to draw a heart

Path p;
p.moveTo(121, 251)
 .cubicCurveTo(-25, -80, -50,-80, -100, -130, true)
 .arcTo(70, 70, -45, 0, 1, 100, -100, true)
 .arcTo(70, 70, 45, 0, 1, 100, 100, true)
 .cubicCurveTo(-50, 50, -75, 50, -100, 130, true);
p.animate.blink(2);
p.attr("fill", "DeepPink");

File I/O - Output

Ellipse e(100, 50, 100, 50);
e.attr({
    {"fill", "blue"},
    {"stroke", "black"},
    {"stroke-width", "5"},
    {"stroke-dasharray", "5, 10"}
});
e.save("sample.svg");

File I/O - Input

One liner!

ShapePtr tiger = load("tiger.svg");

Grouping

Circle c1(40, 40, 25);
Circle c2(60, 60, 25);
Group g(c1, c2);
g.attr({
    {"fill", "none"},
    {"stroke", "DeepPink"},
    {"stroke-width", "5"},
});
  • Large SVGs contain multiple shapes and nested group structure
  • Intuitive syntax to build groups
  • memory management: ShapePtr

The Animator

The animator object: obj.animate

Similar to D3.js,   method chaining of basic functions

Rect r(20, 20, 100, 100, 3, 3);
r.attr({
    {"fill", "red"},
    {"stroke", "black"},
    {"stroke-width", "5"}
});
Point center(70, 70);
r.animate.rotate(center, 0, center, 360)
         .duration("10s")
         .loop(true);

Animation

  • Animation class
  • Basic Animation
    • ​translate, rotate, scale...
  • User defined composition of Animation possible

Animation - continued

  • User defined/composition of Animation possible
    • Animating arbitrary attributes
  • Animating arbitrary shapes along arbitrary paths
  • Simple syntax:
Path p;
p.moveTo(10, 80)
 .cubicCurveTo(40, 10, 65, 10, 95, 80)
 .cubicCurveTo(150, 150, 180, 80);
tiger->animate.move_along(p)
              .duration("6s")
              .loop(true);

Library design: OOP

  • Inheritance: shape classes
  • export_SVG: example of OOP
xml_node Group::export_SVG(xml_document& doc) {
    auto group = doc.append_child("g");
    for(auto& shp : this->shapes) {
        auto node = shp->export_SVG(doc);
        group.append_move(node);
    }
    this->export_attributes(group);
    return this->add_animations(doc, group);
}

Testing

Visual test cases: I/O

Visual test cases: composition of SVGs

Modern C++ features

Fold expression!

template<typename... Args>
Group(Args&&... args)
{
    (this->shapes.push_back(args.clone()), ...);
}
  • At some point in the project...
    • <optional> 
    • std::any_of, std::none_of 

The Wishlist

  • Concept
  • Prodirect manipulation
  • literal for units: em, in, %, mm
  • More SVG features
    • <​LinearGradient>
    • <pattern>
    • <use> and <set>

...

Demo

(you have already seen it)

Acknowledgements

Animate++

By Nimo Wode Ni

Animate++

  • 370
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