Building web apps with

{ By: "Nirmal V",
Date: 26/08/2017
Location: Kerala Javascript Meetup, Kochi }

WHAT IS EXPRESS.JS

  • Minimalist web application framework
  • Runs on NodeJS
  • Inspired by Sinatra
  • Asynchronous

What is Node.js

Node.js® is a platform built on Chrome's JavaScript runtime for easily building fast, scalable network applications. Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that makes it lightweight and efficient, perfect for data-intensive real-time applications that run across distributed devices.

Features of Node.js

  • Asynchronous and Event Driven
  • Very Fast
  • Single Threaded but Highly Scalable 
  • No Buffering

Synchronous vs Asynchronous Programming

//example 1
var result = database.query("SELECT * FROM hugetable");
console.log("query finished");
console.log("Next line");


//example 2
database.query("SELECT * FROM hugetable", function(rows) {
    console.log("query finished");
});
console.log("Next line");

ExpressJS - How to install

npm install <package-name>
npm install --save express
npm install -g nodemon
npm init
npm install -g <package-name>
ls node_modules 

#(dir node_modules for windows)

ExpressJS - Basics

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

app.get('/', function(req, res){
   res.send("Hello world!");
});

app.listen(3000);
nodemon index.js
http://localhost:3000

ExpressJS - Basics

app.listen(port, [host], [backlog], [callback]])

Port
A port number on which the server should accept incoming requests.

host


Name of the domain. You need to set it when you deploy your apps to the cloud.

 

backlog


The maximum number of queued pending connections. The default is 511.
 

callback


An asynchronous function that is called when the server starts listening for requests.



 

ExpressJS - Routing

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

app.get('/hello', function(req, res){
   res.send("Hello World!");
});

app.post('/hello', function(req, res){
   res.send("You just called the post method at '/hello'!\n");
});

app.listen(3000);

ExpressJS - Routing

var express = require('express');
var router = express.Router();

router.get('/', function(req, res){
   res.send('GET route on things.');
});
router.post('/', function(req, res){
   res.send('POST route on things.');
});

//export this router to use in our index.js
module.exports = router;
var express = require('Express');
var app = express();

var things = require('./things.js');

//both index.js and things.js should be in same directory
app.use('/things', things);

app.listen(3000);

ExpressJS - Routing

app.all('/test', function(req, res){
   res.send("HTTP method doesn't have any effect on this route!");
});

ExpressJS - Routing

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

app.get('/:id', function(req, res){
   res.send('The id you specified is ' + req.params.id);
});
app.listen(3000);
http://localhost:3000/123
var express = require('express');
var app = express();

app.get('/things/:name/:id', function(req, res) {
   res.send('id: ' + req.params.id + ' and name: ' + req.params.name);
});
app.listen(3000);
http://localhost:3000/things/tutorialspoint/12345

ExpressJS - Routing

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

app.get('/things/:id([0-9]{5})', function(req, res){
   res.send('id: ' + req.params.id);
});

app.listen(3000);
http://localhost:3000/14554

Pattern Matched Routes

ExpressJS - Routing

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

//Other routes here
app.get('*', function(req, res){
   res.send('Sorry, this is an invalid URL.');
});
app.listen(3000);

ExpressJS - Middleware

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

//First middleware before response is sent
app.use(function(req, res, next){
   console.log("Start");
   next();
});

//Route handler
app.get('/', function(req, res, next){
   res.send("Middle");
   next();
});

app.use('/', function(req, res){
   console.log('End');
});

app.listen(3000);

ExpressJS - Templating

npm install --save pug
app.set('view engine', 'pug');
app.set('views','./views');
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
   <head>
      <title>Hello Pug</title>
   </head>
   
   <body>
      <p class = "greetings" id = "people">Hello World!</p>
   </body>
</html>
app.get('/first_template', function(req, res){
   res.render('first_view');
});
doctype html
html
   head
      title = "Hello Pug"
   body
      p.greetings#people Hello World!

ExpressJS - Templating

html
   head
      title=name
   body
      h1=name
      a(href = url) URL
var express = require('express');
var app = express();

app.get('/dynamic_view', function(req, res){
   res.render('dynamic', {
      name: "TutorialsPoint", 
      url:"http://www.tutorialspoint.com"
   });
});

app.listen(3000);

ExpressJS - Templating

html
   head
      title Simple template
   body
      include ./header.pug
      h3 I'm the main content
      include ./footer.pug
div.header.
   I'm the header for this website.
div.footer.
   I'm the footer for this website.

ExpressJS - Form data

html
html
   head
      title Form Tester
   body
      form(action = "/", method = "POST")
         div
            label(for = "say") Say:
            input(name = "say" value = "Hi")
         br
         div
            label(for = "to") To:
            input(name = "to" value = "Express forms")
         br
         button(type = "submit") Send my greetings
npm install --save body-parser multer

ExpressJS - Form data

var express = require('express');
var bodyParser = require('body-parser');
var multer = require('multer');
var upload = multer();
var app = express();

app.get('/', function(req, res){
   res.render('form');
});

app.set('view engine', 'pug');
app.set('views', './views');

// for parsing application/json
app.use(bodyParser.json()); 

// for parsing application/xwww-
app.use(bodyParser.urlencoded({ extended: true })); 
form-urlencoded

// for parsing multipart/form-data
app.use(upload.array()); 
app.use(express.static('public'));

app.post('/', function(req, res){
   console.log(req.body);
   res.send("recieved your request!");
});
app.listen(3000);
npm install --save body-parser multer

ExpressJS - Database

html
head
   title Person
   body
      form(action = "/person", method = "POST")
      div
         label(for = "name") Name: 
         input(name = "name")
      br
      div
         label(for = "age") Age: 
         input(name = "age")
      br
      div
         label(for = "nationality") Nationality: 
         input(name = "nationality")
      br
      button(type = "submit") Create new person
app.get('/person', function(req, res){
   res.render('person');
});
npm install --save mongoose
use my_db

ExpressJS - Database

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

var mongoose = require('mongoose');
mongoose.connect('mongodb://localhost/my_db');

var personSchema = mongoose.Schema({
   name: String,
   age: Number,
   nationality: String
});

var Person = mongoose.model("Person", personSchema);

app.get('/people', function(req, res){
   Person.find(function(err, response){
      res.json(response);
   });
});

app.listen(3000);

ExpressJS - Database

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

var mongoose = require('mongoose');
mongoose.connect('mongodb://localhost/my_db');

var personSchema = mongoose.Schema({
   name: String,
   age: Number,
   nationality: String
});

var Person = mongoose.model("Person", personSchema);

app.put('/people/:id', function(req, res){
   Person.findByIdAndUpdate(req.params.id, req.body, function(err, response){
      if(err) res.json({message: "Error in updating person with id " + req.params.id});
      res.json(response);
   });
});

app.listen(3000);

ExpressJS - Database

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

var mongoose = require('mongoose');
mongoose.connect('mongodb://localhost/my_db');

var personSchema = mongoose.Schema({
   name: String,
   age: Number,
   nationality: String
});

var Person = mongoose.model("Person", personSchema);

app.delete('/people/:id', function(req, res){
   Person.findByIdAndRemove(req.params.id, function(err, response){
      if(err) res.json({message: "Error in deleting record id " + req.params.id});
      else res.json({message: "Person with id " + req.params.id + " removed."});
   });
});

app.listen(3000);

ExpressJS - Cookies

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

app.get('/', function(req, res){
   res.cookie('name', 'express').send('cookie set'); //Sets name = express
});

app.listen(3000);
npm install --save cookie-parser
//Expires after 360000 ms from the time it is set.
res.cookie(name, 'value', {expire: 360000 + Date.now()}); 
var express = require('express');
var app = express();

app.get('/clear_cookie_foo', function(req, res){
   clearCookie('foo');
   res.send('cookie foo cleared');
});

app.listen(3000);

ExpressJS - Sessions

var express = require('express');
var cookieParser = require('cookie-parser');
var session = require('express-session');

var app = express();

app.use(cookieParser());
app.use(session({secret: "Shh, its a secret!"}));

app.get('/', function(req, res){
   if(req.session.page_views){
      req.session.page_views++;
      res.send("You visited this page " + req.session.page_views + " times");
   } else {
      req.session.page_views = 1;
      res.send("Welcome to this page for the first time!");
   }
});
app.listen(3000);
npm install --save express-session

ExpressJS - Error Handling

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

app.get('/', function(req, res){
   //Create an error and pass it to the next function
   var err = new Error("Something went wrong");
   next(err);
});

/*
 * other route handlers and middleware here
 * ....
 */

//An error handling middleware
app.use(function(err, req, res, next) {
   res.status(500);
   res.send("Oops, something went wrong.")
});

app.listen(3000);

ExpressJS - Debugging

DEBUG = express:* node index.js
DEBUG = express:application,express:router node index.js

ExpressJS - Directory Structure

test-project/
   node_modules/
   config/
      db.js                //Database connection and configuration
      credentials.js       //Passwords/API keys for external services used by your app
      config.js            //Other environment variables
   models/                 //For mongoose schemas
      users.js
      things.js
   routes/                 //All routes for different entities in different files 
      users.js
      things.js
   views/
      index.pug
      404.pug
        ...
   public/                 //All static content being served
      images/
      css/
      javascript/
   app.js
   routes.js               //Require all routes in this and then require this file in 
   app.js 
   package.json

For Websites

ExpressJS - Directory Structure

test-project/
   node_modules/
   config/
      db.js                //Database connection and configuration
      credentials.js       //Passwords/API keys for external services used by your app
   models/                 //For mongoose schemas
      users.js
      things.js
   routes/                 //All routes for different entities in different files 
      users.js
      things.js
   app.js
   routes.js               //Require all routes in this and then require this file in 
   app.js 
   package.json

For RESTful APIs

Thanks!

nirmalkamath@gmail.com

http://codenirmal.com
 

expressjs

By nirmalvyas

expressjs

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