Who framed the <video> element:

Making sense of

video on the web

Promo

Feb 2021

@opherv

There is like, a lot of video on the internet

500 million video hours daily

100 million video hours daily

https://99firms.com/blog/facebook-video-statistics/

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/07/technology/coronavirus-internet-use.html

How does web video actually work?

Technology

Politics

 

I'm @OpherV

 

Creative Developer

Hi!

<img src="cupcakes.png" />
<img src="cupcakes.png"
     alt="Me eating cupcakes" />
<video src="video.webm"></video>
<video src="video.webm"></video>

Will this play?

Yes

Unless…

you want it to play on different

browsers and devices

 

<video>
  <!-- chrome, firefox, edge -->
  <source src="/videos/video.webm" type='video/webm' />
  <!-- safari, iOS, ie(mobile safari) -->
  <source src="/videos/video.mp4" type='video/mp4' />
</video>

Will this play?

Technically, Yes

but you also want to provide a video experience in proper quality that doesn’t take forever to load

Broadcast

Web Video

Pixel

Pixel

3 * 8 bits = 24 bits

Red, Green, Blue

2,073,600 pixels * 24 bits =  ~6.22 MB for one frame

FullHD =  1920 X 1080 = 2,073,600 pixels

Let's assume a constant rate of 23.976 FPS

One second of video = 6.22 * 23.976 =  ~149Mb

Average runtime of a Bridgerton episode is 60 mins

One episode = 60 * 149mb = ~9 Gb

Video playing is a race between

 

Playback

Download

     <                     = 😊

Playback

Download

         >                     = 😡

Playback

Download

Codec

Coder/Decoder

1994

MPEG-2/H.262

1997

MPEG-2 licensing

2003

AVC (H.264)

2013

HEVC (H.265)

1991

MPEG-1/H.261

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Video_Coding

https://blog.chiariglione.org/2018/01/

https://blog.chiariglione.org/2018/01/

Video codec licensing terms

with

If Mozilla wanted to to ship 

it would cost...

Five MILLION dollars

They are also

computationally expensive!

Codecs are not just

financially expensive

https://www.idownloadblog.com/2015/10/23/apple-tsmc-info-process/

Who's responsible for providing the codec?

Hardware

OS

Browser

💸💸💸💸💸

1994

MPEG-2/H.262

1997

MPEG-2 licensing

2003

AVC (H.264)

2013

HEVC (H.265)

1991

MPEG-1/H.261

2006

Windows Media Video Streaming

Flash Video (~H.263) / 320 X 240

QuickTime

https://blog.codinghorror.com/did-youtube-cut-the-gordian-knot-of-video-codecs/

<object width="425" height="344">
	<param name="movie" value="myMovie.mp4"></param>
	<param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param>
	<param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param>
	<embed src="https://www.youtube.com/v/9sEI1AUFJKw&hl=en_GB&fs=1&" 
    	   type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always"
           allowfullscreen="true" width="425" height="344"></embed>
</object>

Codec

Coder/Decoder

2013

HEVC (H.265)

1991 - 2003

MPEG-1/H.261

MPEG-2/H.262

AVC (H.264)

MPEG licensing

2006

Google

buys YouTube

2007

<video> tag

lands in Opera

2010

Google

releases VP8

(First open codec!)

2011

YouTube

goes HTML5

2018

AOMedia

releases AV1

Google

releases VP9

 

2014

Cisco releases

OpenH264

for all browsers

Containers

mov / mp4 / webm / mkv

 video streams

audio streams

metadata: codec, bitrate, resolution, subtitles, time...

editing

playback

<video>
  <source src="/videos/video1.webm"
          type='video/webm;codecs="vp9,vorbis"' />
  <source src="/videos/video2.webm"
          type='video/webm;codecs="vp8,vorbis"' />
  <source src="/videos/video3.mp4"
          type='video/mp4;codecs="avc1.42E01E, mp4a.40.2"' />
  <source src="/videos/video4.mp4"
          type='video/mp4;codecs="video/ogg; codecs="theora, vorbis"' />
</video>

Will this play?

Yes*

* If your users are at the office or home where they have a really good internet connection and nobody else is using it, and you have no problem with your server exploding

 

Video files are

 

BIG

<video>
  <source src="https://cdn.com/video1.webm"
  		  type='video/webm;codecs="vp9, vorbis"' />
  <source src="https://cdn.com/video2.webm"
   		  type='video/webm;codecs="vp8, vorbis"' />
  <source src="https://cdn.com/video3.mp4"
          type='video/mp4;codecs="avc1.42E01E, mp4a.40.2"' />
</video>

Will this play?

Yes..?

But you probably care about people watching the video on their mobile phone, or on a train, or anywhere that’s an underpowered device on a shitty bandwidth

 

Progressive Download

https://www.panopto.com/blog/the-way-video-works-online-has-changed/

Video Streaming

https://www.panopto.com/blog/the-way-video-works-online-has-changed/

Adaptive Bitrate

https://www.panopto.com/blog/the-way-video-works-online-has-changed/

Streaming Standards

https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/Media_Source_Extensions_API

<video>
  <!-- streaming sources -->
  <source src="https://cdn.com/video.mpd"
          type='application/dash+xml' />
  <source src="https://cdn.com/video.m3u8"
          type='application/x-mpegURL' />
  <!-- progressive download sources -->  
  <source src="https://cdn.com/video.webm"
  	      type='video/webm;codecs="vp8, vorbis"' />
  <source src="https://cdn.com/video.mp4"
          type='video/mp4;codecs="avc1.42E01E, mp4a.40.2"' />
</video>

Will this play?

Finally, YES

Until it doesn't,

because something always goes wrong with video

Errors

stalled - browser isn't getting data and doesn't know why
abort - media data was aborted
suspend - browser isn't getting data intentionally
error - ???
emptied - media has become empty

Do I really have to handle

all of this stuff? 😮

Probably not 🤷

For ornamental purposes (e.g. video hero image) , use a CDN

https://www.panopto.com/blog/the-way-video-works-online-has-changed/

For hosting, encoding and playing video use a platform

For taking video a few steps forwards

Web video must adapt to the browser, hardware, screen resolution and network conditions and more...

🎥🙅🖼️

but it's so much fun! :D

Thanks!

@opherv

eko.engineering

Who framed the <video> element

By Opher Vishnia

Who framed the <video> element

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