Tackling transactions in Microservices applications 

Bio

Rubén Pérez

Software Engineer at Schibsted Spain

  • Java champion

@bakwrau  

  • Author of 0 books

Agenda 

  • ACID Transactions
    • They are not an option in a distributed system
  • Sagas
    • Why they are a good option
  • Two Phase Commit
    • Why we should avoid it

Monolith

Transactions in a Monolith

What is

ACID?

ACID

Set of properties of database transactions intended to guarantee validity even in the event of errors

ACID

A


C


I


D

 

tomicity

onsistency

solation

urability

So far so good...

If the product is successful, it will keep growing.

And getting worse…

TODO images

Problems arise

  • High Coupling

  • Too large for a single developer to understand

  • Slow day to day development

  • Spaghetti code / big ball of mud

  • Delayed deployments

  • Reliability

  • Long term commitment to a technology stack

  • ...

We would like

  • Smaller code base

  • Less code complexity, faster to develop and easier to understand

  • Minimize cost of change

  • Different responsibilities are placed in different services

  • Deployed independently

  • Better scaling

  • ...

So we move to Microservices

Microservices

Everything is a trade-off

We

don't

have

ACID

anymore

2 Phase Commit

2 Phase Commit

  • Specialized type of consensus protocol

  • It is a distributed algorithm that coordinates all the processes that participate in a distributed atomic transaction on whether to commit or abort (rollback) the transaction

Commit Request Phase

Coordinator

Query to commit

Query to commit

Query to commit

Query to commit

Commit Phase

Coordinator

Query to commit

Query to commit

Query to commit

Query to commit

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Commit

Commit

Commit

Commit

Ack

Ack

Ack

Ack

Commit Phase

Coordinator

Query to commit

Query to commit

Query to commit

Query to commit

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Rollback

Rollback

Rollback

Rollback

Ack

Ack

Ack

Ack

2 Phase Commit Pros

  • Provides atomicity because every commit is applied at the same time, or no commit is executed at all

  • Distributed transactions are very appealing from a developer’s point of view

2 Phase Commit Cons

  • It’s a blocking protocol

  • 2PC coordinator is a Single Point of Failure

  • O(n^2) messages worst case

  • Reduced throughput due to locks, and depending on the slowest machine

  • 2PC impacts availability (Availability is the product of the availability of all the participants in the transactions )

Can we do better?

Sagas

1987

Sagas are long lived transactions that can be broken up in a sequence of relatively independent sub-transactions than can be interleaved

All transactions in the sequence complete successfully or compensating transactions ran to amend a partial execution

To amend partial executions, each saga transaction

\( T_i \)

 

should be provided with a compensating transaction

\(C_i\)

The compensating transaction semantically undoes any of the actions performed by \( T_i \)

Guarantee:

 

  • \( T_1 \), \( T_2 \), ... \( T_n \)

 

  • \( T_1 \), \( T_2 \), ... \( T_j \), \( C_j \), \( C_2 \), ... \( C_1 \)
0 <= j < n
0<=j<n0 <= j < n

Trips

Sagas are a

Failure Management Pattern

Sagas vs 2PC

A saga does not have ACID guarantees

  • Is not atomic
  • Does not provide strict serializability

The trade-off -> availability

Choreography vs Orchestration

After \(T_i\) completes, some code has to decide what to execute next

  • $$ T_{i+1}$$
  • $$ C_{i-1}$$

Choreography

Choreography

  • Distributed decision making
  • Pros:

    • No extra component

    • Flexibility to add new saga (context passing)

  • Cons:

    • Each service has to know what to do next (beyond its scope)

    • Service coupling: the logic about the saga is scattered throughout the system

Orchestration

Orchestration

  • Centralized decision making component

  • Pros:

    • Visibility of processes

    • Ease of management

    • Cohesion

    • Better composability

  • Cons

    • Need of a new component/implementation

    • Need of write new code in that component in order to support new sagas

Two tipical ways of implementing this:

  • The orchestrator is in an already existing component
  • The orchestrator is a brand new component

Saga Execution Coordinator

SEC

  • Distributed/Durable Log
    • Fault tolerant and highly available

SEC

  • Saga Execution Coordinator

Compensating requests:

  • Must be idempotent
  • Cannot abort (cannot say they are not completing the task)

Requests:

  • Should be commutative with the compensating requests
  • Can abort
  • Must be idempotent *

Book

Cancel

Book

START SAGA

START CAR

END CAR

START HOTEL

END HOTEL

START FLIGHT

END FLIGHT

START PAYMENT

END PAYMENT

END SAGA

SEC

START SAGA

START CAR

END CAR

START HOTEL

END HOTEL

START FLIGHT

ABORT FLIGHT

COMP HOTEL

COMP CAR

END SAGA

SEC

START SAGA

START CAR

END CAR

START HOTEL

END HOTEL

START FLIGHT

END FLIGHT

START PAYMENT

END PAYMENT

END SAGA

SEC

START SAGA

START CAR

END CAR

START HOTEL

START FLIGHT

ABORT FLIGHT

END HOTEL

COMP HOTEL

COMP CAR

END SAGA

SEC

SEC Failure

SEC Failure

It is not a Single Point of Failure

The state is in the log, not in the SEC

SEC Failure

Just spin up new machines.

  • All executed \(T_i\) have completed (Start & End logged)

To resume previous work:

  • Any executed \(T_i\) not completed (Start but not End logged)
  • Any Aborted \(T_i\)

Wrap up

Higher Cohesion & Composable Services

SEC

Gw

Isolation of Complex Code

SEC

Gw

Gw

Isolation of Complex Code

SEC

Gw

Gw

Trips

Sagas

  • Transaction-like flows
  • Isolation of complex code
  • Composable service
  • Higher cohesion in our system

Sagas - Software Craftmanship 2017 #scbcn17

By Rubén Pérez

Sagas - Software Craftmanship 2017 #scbcn17

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