TypeScript

CrossLead Engineering - 1/3/17 

  • Syntax Differences
  • Type System
  • Development Workflow

Syntax Differences

function add(a, b) {
    return a + b;
}

TypeScript   ES5

Syntax Differences: Iterator Symbol

const s = new Set([1,3,4,5,6]);

// when targeting es5 or less, 
// doesn't work => runtime error if file is JS...
for (let el of s) {
  //..
}

// does work
for (let el of Array.from(s)) {
  //..
}

TypeScript   ES6

Syntax Differences: New Syntax

// enumeration object
enum STATUS {
  ACTIVE,
  DISABLED
}

// instance prop
class User {
  constructor(public name, private id) {}
}

namespace Tyr {
  export function collection() {}
}

Type System: Annotations

function add(a: number, b: number) {
  return a + b;
}

Type System: Type Aliases

type Status = 'ACTIVE' | 'INACTIVE' | 'DELETED';


type List = {
  element: number,
  next: List | void
};


type HasA = { a: string };

type HasB = { b: Status };

type HasBoth = HasA & HasB; // { a: string, b: Status }

type A = HasA['a']; // string


function myFunction(a: number): number { //... }

type NumberToNumberFn = typeof myFunction; // (a: number) => number

Type System: Type Predicates

interface PromiseLike {
  then(): number;
}

function isPromiseLike(obj: any): obj is PromiseLike {
  return (
    obj && 
    obj.then && 
    typeof obj.then === 'function'
  );
}

Type System: Mapped Types

const a = {
  x: 1,
  y: 2,
  z: 'hello'
};


const AType = typeof a;
const KeyOfA = keyof AType; // -> 'x' | 'y' | 'z';


type OptionalATypes = {
  [P in KeyOfA]?: AType[P];
}

Type System: Interfaces + Generics

 

interface ID_able {
  id: number;
}

interface ID_and_prop extends ID_able {
  prop: string;
}

class Test implements ID_and_prop {}

interface Constructable<T> {
  new (...args: any[]): T;
}

Type System: Generics continued

 

Type System: Declaration Files

 

// -> import gulp from 'gulp'; -> gulp: any;
declare module 'gulp';

// declare module with some type information
declare module 'jquery' {
  var $: Function; 
  export default $;
}

// augment existing interface
declare module 'express' {
  interface Request {
    user: Tyr.User;
  }
}

Development Workflow

  • tsconfig.json
  • @types

Development Workflow: Best Practices

  • Interface Composition
  • Type files
  • Function parameters
  • Use interfaces for complex, type alias for simple/primative

Resources

TypeScript

By Ben Southgate

TypeScript

  • 460
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