### Bilawa Respati

Musician based in Berlin. Here are some slides I used during discussion/open studio session on my works. I hope it will be useful.

Contemplation on audio samples and Karawitan from Latent Sonorities

— Bilawa Ade Respati

- Sharing artistic process during Latent Sonorities project
- Understanding explanation about Karawitan given by teachers
- Listening and "looking" at the sound

- Getting to know the characteristics of a specific instrument set
- i.e., Gamelan Lindhu Raras of Rumah Budaya Indonesia

- Not an "academic research"
- Working on a small data and specific case
- More of as a source for inspiration and wonder
- Realized as part of an artistic process

- Isolated sound recording
- From
*noise* - From
*entirety*

- From
- Directed sound recording
- Loudness
- Timbre
- Manner of performance

- Representing sound in 2 dimensions
- x-axis: the progression of time in time (second)
- y-axis: the frequency components of a sound (Hertz)
- Sound consists of
- Fundamental frequency (lowest component)
- Partials (upper components)

- Tuning system and its perceived quality
- Laras Slendro and Pelog
- Slendro
- 5 notes: 1 2 3 5 6

- Pelog
- 7 notes (unorganized): 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
- 5 notes (organized)
- Bem: 1 2 3 5 6
- Barang: 2 3 5 6 7

- Fundamental frequency of the wilah estimates the perceived pitch thereof
- Spectral flatness: measure whether a sound is noise-like (value: 1) or sinusoidal-like (value: 0)
- We take fundamental frequency value where its spectral flatness at its lowest

Tumbuk

- Pitch estimates "collide" at the 6th wilah index
- Shows that the Gamelan set has Tumbuk 6
- Note which pitch height shared by the two Laras

- Jangkah: interval distance between adjacent notes
- Slendro: often described as having 5 equidistant intervals (240 cents)
- In reality, there is always variability
- The variability is intentional
- The practice of embat

- In the above graphics: the mean value approaches 240 cents

- Pitch tracking using parabolic interpolation on STFT
- Pitch: assume frequency bin with maximum amplitude

- Slenthem: less inharmonic partials
- Analyze the "tonal" slice of the sound

- Estimate total sensory dissonance
- Frequencies of spectral peaks
- Magnitude of spectral peaks

- Based on perceptual experiment by Plomp and Levelt (1965)
- Values
- 0: Complete consonant
- 1: Complete dissonant

Name | Wilah Distance Form | Mean Interval (Cent) |
---|---|---|

Nyampar | 239.54 | |

Adu Manis | 481.87 | |

Kempyung | 721.73 | |

Adu Sari | 962.31 | |

Gembyang | 1204.68 |

: Sounded note

: Notes in between

- Sensory dissonance measures the perceived dissonance by the auditory system
- High value: more dissonant
- Low value: more consonant

- The ordering of the swarantara as above shows the tendency to lower median value of the sensory dissonance
- The importance of kempyung and gembyang in the music

- Pathet: organization system in Karawitan
- Musical rules
- Time organization of performance

- In connection with agrarian culture
- Progression of rice cultivation until its harvest

- Pathet determinant: a complex subject
- Pathet: a system with many descriptors

- Note sequence to approach the important note for the pathet
- Only one of many other pathet descriptors

d(p, q) = \sqrt{(p_1 - q_1)^2 + \ldots + (p_n - q_n)^2}

- Measure distance between points
- Comparing how far a group of points from another group of points

- Euclidean distance measures how small or large the distance between a group of points
- Smaller value: more similar/close
- Larger value: more different/far
- Here: normalize to a value between 0-1
- 0: distance between the same group of points
- 1: distance between group of points with the farthest distance

- Sanga vs Manyura
- The farthest distance to each other
- Melodic patterns (cengkok) and the way of garap are exclusive to each other

- Nem vs Sanga and Nem vs Manyura
- Both comparison having the same distance
- Melodic patterns and the way of garap in pathet Nem can be borrowed from pathet Sanga and Manyura

- They are difficult to discriminate aurally
- Other strategies to perceive it
- Pathetan
- Cengkok
- Melodic form / contour, etc.

Name | Wilah Distance Form | Pair Example |
Median Interval (Cent) |
---|---|---|---|

Nyampar | 5-6 / 3-5 | 134.19 | |

Adu Manis | 2-5 / 3-6 | 535.47 | |

Kempyung | 1-5 / 2-6 | 670.36 | |

Adu Sari | 1-6 / 2-7 | 817.29 | |

Gembyang | - | - |

X: Sounded note

O: Notes in between

Measured as note pair in each organized laras pelog

- Following description of pathet in Pelog
- Pathet as a sequence of tones
- One among many possible descriptors for pathet

- Connection between frequency components and musical knowledge
- Saron Pelog (RBI) note Nem
- Observe peak frequency components
- Find relationship between upper partial components and fundamental frequency

Frequency (Hz) | Ratio | Interval (Cents) | Modulo 1200 Remainder (Cents) |
---|---|---|---|

931.17 | 1.00 | 0 | 0 |

1845.14 | 1.98 | 1183 | 1183 |

2584.09 | 2.79 | 1770 | 570 |

2727.66 | 2.93 | 1861 | 661 |

2995.61 | 3.22 | 2024 | 824 |

3562.57 | 3.83 | 2325 | 1125 |

4333.95 | 4.65 | 2661 | 261 |

5633.60 | 6.05 | 3116 | 716 |

Kpy.

Nyp.

Gby.

(Ad.Sr.).

(Kpy.)

(Ad.Mns)

- Red square marks frequency components related to the swarantara in Slendro
- Blue square marks frequency components related to the swarantara in Pelog
- (Analysis in Pelog is not shown in this presentation)

- Peaks of the spectral components in this wilah nem are related to the swarantara both in Slendro and Pelog
- RBI Gamelan is tumbuk nem

- Descriptor for tuning variability and its aesthetics
- Observing
- Beating frequency
- Various gembyang register

- Types of embat -- beating frequency
- Lugu - No deviation
- Sundari - Deviate to higher value (+1 Hz)
- Mucuk Bung - Deviate even higher (+3 Hz)
- Laras Ati - Deviate to lower value (-1 Hz)

Gembyangan range 1

Gembyangan range 2

Gembyangan range 4

- Compare the beating frequency of the note nem across gembyangan range
- All frequency values are reduced to the same octave
- Calculate the difference in frequency values

- Observe the value of the beating frequency and its tendency as gembyangan range increases
- Some wilah nem are excluded
- Introduces outliers
- Suspicion of out-of-tune instrument or damaged

f_b = |f_1 - f_2|

- Frequency deviation produces beating
- Is there a tendency to this deviation?
- Taking Slenthem as standard
- Find deviation in tuning (gembyang)
- Plot across gembyangan range

Tend to be Sundari-like

- Laras schematic and its matrices calculation
- Effort to build a general theory of Laras

- Considering
- Description of tradition
- Empirical observation
- Theoritical abstraction

- By Priadi Dwi Hardjito
- Relation to the work of
- R. C. Hardjosubroto
- R. M. A. Koesoemadinata

- Deriving any Laras possible and studying its characteristics

Slendro Makro (Kempyung = 720 cent)

Slendro Mikro (Kempyung = 600 cent)

s

s

s

s

s

n

n

s

s

s

s

s

n

n

0

1200

K_u

K

K_l

**L**

**L**

**L**

**S**

**S**

**S**

**S'**

**S'**

**S'**

*Gembyang*

*Kempyung*

3s + 1n = K

5s + 2n = 1200

A gembyang:

A kempyung:

\begin{bmatrix}
5 & 2\\
3 & 1\\
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
s\\
n\\
\end{bmatrix}
=
\begin{bmatrix}
1200\\
K\\
\end{bmatrix}

As matrix equation:

- How to draw a schematic of a particular Laras?
- Through knowledge about
- Kempyung
- Interval s & n
- Ratio of s to n
- Number of division per gembyang

- Through knowledge about
- Number of equal division per gembyang
- With knowledge about mentioned parameters

K (cent) | s (cent) | n (cent) | Laras |
---|---|---|---|

705.88 | 211.76 | 70.59 | Degung Sunda |

685.71 | 171.43 | 171.43 | Muang Thai |

700.00 | 200.00 | 100.00 | Diatonic scale |

666.67 | 133.33 | 266.67 | Pelog |

720.00 | 240.00 | 0.00 | Slendro Makro |

600.00 | 0.00 | 600.00 | Slendro Mikro |

- Measured:
- Kempyung: 721.73 cents
- Gembyang: 1204.68 cents
- Jangkah (mean): 239.54 cents
- Jangkah (standard deviation): 7.31 cents

- Calculated:
- Interval s: 238.78 cents
- Interval n: 5.39 cents
- 2n per gembyang
- 10.78 cents to distribute in the gembyangan
- Very close to the observed standard deviation value

- 2n per gembyang

Experiment of intercultural laras converter

- Sound samples and its audio analysis gives possible insight to aspects of Karawitan
- Laras, Swarantara, Pathet and Embat

- Possibility to learn some characteristics of Lindhu Raras Gamelan set
- Tumbuk 6
- Possibly having Embat Sundari
- Detecting damage / out-of-tune

- Interplay between theories and practical aspects of music

I am grateful for the explanations and references given by:

- Priadi Dwi Hardjito
- Bram Palgunadi
- Bambang Sadarta
- Ki Sigit Totocarito

Latent Sonorities team, Rumah Budaya Indonesia team, Mas Mo'ong Pribadi, Adrian Benigno Latupeirissa.

Palgunadi, Bram. *Serat Kandha Karawitan Jawi: Mengenal Seni Karawitan Jawa*. Bandung: Penerbit ITB, 2002.

Hardjito, Priadi Dwi. “Pemakaian Matriks ‘Makro’ Slendro Mikro Untuk Menganalisis Skema Laras Musik Berbagai Bangsa.” *Panggung*, no. XIV (June 2000).

Librosa. Python package for music and audio analysis.

Essentia. Open-source library and tools for audio and music analysis, description and synthesis.

Latent Sonorities. Sample pack and composition project.

- Notation as learning-aid
- Written learning materials
- Examples given by teachers

- Two questions
- Given a notation, how does it sound?
- Given a sound, how will it be notated?

Example: a notation for Cacahan Saron, Srepeg Pelog Nem

By Bilawa Respati

Presentation given during an open studio session on 14th of September 2023, Haus der Indonesischen Kulturen, Berlin.

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Musician based in Berlin. Here are some slides I used during discussion/open studio session on my works. I hope it will be useful.