Elixir Programming Language

Andrew Schutt

@schuttandrew

Who am I?

Why learn Elixir?

Why learn Elixir?

Why learn any language?

  • Languages don't use a single paradigm
  • Different languages solve the same problems in different ways
  • New opportunities

Theme from previous languages

  • All Object Oriented
  • All Imperative languages

Why did I learn Elixir?

  • Functional Programming
  • Similarity to Ruby
  • Phoenix web framework
  • Built on Erlang VM

Imperative

a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.

Declarative

describing what the program must accomplish in terms of the problem domain, rather than describe how to accomplish it

Functional Programming

programming paradigm treats computation as the evaluation of functions

Immutable Values

  • Variables are immutable

First Class Functions

  • Functions can be...
    • variables
    • arguments
    • return values
    • anonymous

Pure Functions

  • same input = same output

Recursion

  • Recursion
    • Recursion
      • Recursion
        • Recursion
          • Recursion!

Elixir

  • Erlang
  • History
  • Tooling (Mix, IEX, ExDoc, Pry)
  • Syntax
  • Types
  • Data Structures
  • Pattern Matching
  • First Class Functions
  • Guard Clauses
  • Control Flow
  • Pipe Operator

Erlang

  • Proven
  • Fault Tolerant
  • Hot Swap
  • OTP

History

  • created 2011
  • Josè Valim creator

Tools

  • IEX
    • h method
  • ExUnit
    • DocTest
  • Mix

Syntax

Types

  • Integer
  • Float
  • String
  • Bitstring
  • Boolean
  • Atom
  • Tuple
  • List
  • PID

BitString and String


    'string?' == "string?"
      false

    is_list 'string?
      true

    String.valid?("string?")
      true

Atom


    :atom

    :true == true
      true

Tuple


    {1, 2, 3, 4}

    {1, 2.0, :atom, {"a", "tuple"}, "cool"}

List


 [1, 2, 3, 4]

 [1, 2.0, :atom, {"a", "tuple"}, ["a", ['list']]

List


    list = [1, 2, 3, 4]

    [ head | tail ] = list

    head
      1
    tail
      [2, 3, 4]

    new_list = ["new head" | list ]
      ["new head", 1, 2, 3, 4]

List


    list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

    [ 1, 2, third | rest ] = list

    third
      3
    rest
      [4, 5, 6]

    [ 2, 3, third | rest ] = list
    MatchError!

Keyword List


    keyword_list = [key: "value"]

    keyword_list[:key]
      "value"

Keyword List

    
    [{:key, "value"}] == [key: "value"]
      true

Enum


    list = [1, 2, 3]

    Enum.map(list, fn(x) -> x * 2 end)
      [2, 4, 6]

    Enum.map(list, &(&1 * 2))

Binding


    a = 1

    b = 2

    a = 3

    ^a = 1
      false
    ^a = 3
      true
    a
      3

Binding


    value = 100

    old_val = fn -> IO.puts "value was #{value}" end
      #Function
    old_val.()
      value was 100
    value = 1234

    value
      1234
    old_val.()
      value was 100

    
    

Dot Notation


    value = 100

    old_val = fn -> IO.puts "value was #{value}" end
      #Function
    old_val.()
      value was 100
    value = 1234

    value
      1234
    old_val.()
      value was 100

    
    

Pattern Matching


    a = 1

    [_, 2, 3] = [1, 2, 3]

    [_, 2, 3] = [{:value}, 2, 3]

    [_first, _second, third] = [1, 2, 3]
      _first

    [1, 2, 3] = [2, 3, 4]
      MatchError!

First Class Functions


    add = fn n1, n2 -> n1 + n2 end

    subtract = fn n1, n2 -> n1 - n2 end

    perform_calc = fn n1, n2, func ->
                     func.(n1, n2)
                   end

    perform_calc.(5, 6, add)
      11

Control Flow


    if true do
      "it's true!"
    end

    if done do
      "all done!"
    else
      "still doing something"
    end

    unless orange do
      "not orange"
    end

Control Flow

    
    temp = 30

    cond do
      temp >= 212 -> "Boiling"
      temp <= 32 -> "Freezing"
      temp <= -459.67 -> "Absolute Zero"
    end

Case Statements


    calculate = fn expression ->
      case expression do
        {:+, num1, num2} -> num1 + num2
        {:-, num1, num2} -> num1 - num2
        {:*, num1, 0} -> 0 #short circuit
        {:*, num1, num2} -> num1 * num2
        {:/, num1, num2} -> num1 / num2
      end
    end

    calculate.({:+, 1, 2})
      3

Guard Clauses


    {:/, num1, num2} when num2 != 0 -> num1 / num2

    grade = "A"
    good_job = fn(grade) when grade in ["A"] do
      IO.puts "good job"
    end

    good_job.(grade)
      "good job"

Pipe Operator


    IO.puts "hello"
      "hello"

    "hello" |> IO.puts
      "hello"

    Enum.map([1, 2, 3], fn i -> i * 2)
      [2, 4, 6]

    [1, 2, 3] |> Enum.map(fn i -> * 2)
      [2, 4, 6]
  • find user by token
  • fetch user messages
  • convert response to JSON
  • save messages

Pipe Operator

  • find user by token
  • fetch user messages
  • convert response to JSON
  • save messages

    def import_messages
      Enum.each(
        parse_json_to_message_list(
          fetch(find_user_by_token(token), "messages/")
        ), &save_message(&1)
    end

Pipe Operator

  • find user by token
  • fetch user messages
  • convert response to JSON
  • save messages

    def import_messages
      token
      |> find_user_by_token
      |> fetch("messages/")
      |> parse_json_to_message_list
      |> Enum.each(&save_message(&1)
    end

Pipe Operator

Module

    
    defmodule CoffeeCup do

      def start_drinking(oz) when oz > 0 and oz < 20 do
        IO.puts "Cup is full with #{oz} oz"
        drink_up(oz)
      end

      defp drink_up(0), do: get_more
      defp drink_up(oz_left) do
        IO.puts oz_left
        drink_up(oz_left - 1)
      end

      def get_more do
        IO.puts "Get more coffee!"
      end
    end

Phoenix

  • MVC
  • Similar Project Structure
  • Scaffolding
  • Channels
  • Performance

Phoenix New

Very simple to get a new Phoenix project up and going similar to Rails

 

 

 

Running the above commands generates a simple Twitter clone.

 

 

mix phoenix.new example_app
mix ecto.create
mix phoenix.gen.html Comment comments body:string username:string
mix ecto.migrate

Channels

Performance

Switch Now!

DO NOT
ACTUALLY
SWITCH

In Conclusion...

Resources:

  • Programming Elixir
    • Dave Thomas
  • Elixir in Action
    • Saša Jurić
  • Elixir Sips (videocasts)
    • Josh Adams
  • elixir-lang.org
  • phoenixframework.org
  • Elixir Fountain (podcast)
    • Johnny Winn
  • Quick References

Thank you!

@schuttandrew

Elixir Talk for Iowa Ruby Brigade

By Andrew Schutt

Elixir Talk for Iowa Ruby Brigade

a presentation for Iowa Ruby Brigade presenting on the Elixir programming language

  • 180
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