Introduction to XML

also Ajax and JSON


CSIT570 (11/4/2013)


XML = eXtensible markup language


  • meta-markup
  • extensibility

XML vs html


HTML
  • defined set of tags
  • presentation
  • human readable

XML
  • undefined set of tags
  • content
  • human AND machine readable


songs in html

let's extract the data as a human vs machine

<h2>Songs</h2>

<ul>  <li><em>It's the Same Old Song</em> - The Four Tops</li>
  <li><em>I Can't Help Myself</em> - The Four Tops</li>
</ul>


Songs in xml

much easier to extract!

<songs>
   <song>
      <title>It's the Same Old Song</title>
      <artist>The Four Tops</artist>
   </book>

   <song>
      <title>I Can't Help Myself</title>
      <artist>The Four Tops</artist>
   </song>
</songs>


in-class activity


Take your book objects from past assignments

Create an XML document listing 3 examples of books

Hint: your JS object properties would be XML tags!


XML BOOKs


<xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8">
<books>    <book>
      <title>Programming the WWW</title>
      <author>Robert Sebesta</author>
      <publisher>Pearson</publisher>
      <year>2012</year>
    </book>
</books>
</xml>

XML BOoks - more granular


why would we do this:

<xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8">
 <books>
    <book>
      <title>Programming the WWW</title>
      <author>
         <firstName>Robert</firstName>
         <lastName>Sebesta</lastName>
      </author>
      <publisher>Pearson</publisher>
      <year>2012</year>
    </book>
</books>
</xml>

Using special markup characters in your markup

it's not hard, just wrap in <! [CDATA[ ... ]]>

<! [CDATA [ >>> hi there <<< ] ] > 

instead of 

&gt;&gt;&gt; hi there &lt;&lt;&lt;


ajax

asychronous
JavaScript
and
XML

this is how we're going to get our xml...
...into our html

Let's get our books


<script type="text/javascript">
	window.onload = function(){
		
		// let's start ajax
		var xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest();

		// when our http request is ready, print response to console
	    xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = function() {
	        if (xmlhttp.readyState == 4 && xmlhttp.status == 200) {
	            console.log(xmlhttp.responseXML);
	        }
	    }

	    // open the request and get the data
	    xmlhttp.open("GET", "books.xml", true);
	    xmlhttp.send();
	};
</script>

to the console


Let's get the data into our page


add an empty list with id of "books" to get in our ajax call

 <ul id="books"></ul>

Let's Make a library

 window.onload = function(){

		// get our list item
		var library = document.getElementById('books');
		
		// let's start ajax
		var xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest();

		// when our http request is ready, print response to console
	    xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = function() {
	        if (xmlhttp.readyState == 4 && xmlhttp.status == 200) {
	            // print out all xml
	            console.log(xmlhttp.responseXML);

	            // print out all books
	            var data = xmlhttp.responseXML;
	            var books = data.getElementsByTagName('book');
	            console.log(books);

	            // add titles to list
	            for ( var i = 0; i < books.length; i++ ) {
	            	var title = books[i].getElementsByTagName('title')[0].textContent;
	            	var listItem = document.createElement('li'); 
	            	listItem.innerHTML = title;
	            	library.appendChild(listItem);
	            }
	        }
	    }

	    // open the request and get the data
	    xmlhttp.open("GET", "books.xml", true);
	    xmlhttp.send();
	};


In-class assignment


For each book in your XML, show :

The title, italicized
The author
The year, bold

Make each list item have a light gray background ( #efefef ) , some padding, and some margin to space the books apart.


XML is pretty cool


Allows companies to provide data to developers
without compromising their data/databases

Tedious beyond belief, though.



javascript object notation

(JSON)


json vs xml


  • JSON is more lightweight and not markup
  • JavaScript objects, so easier to work with in JavaScript
  • We already know JavaScript objects!

our book objects


var book1 = {  title: 'Programming the WWW',
  author: 'Robert Sebesta',
  publisher: 'Pearson',
  year: '2012'
};

var book2 = {
  title: 'Eloquent JavaScript',
  author: 'Marijn Heverbeke',
  publisher: 'No Starch Press',
  year: '2007'
};

var book1 = {
  title: 'Intro to XML and Ajax (slides)',
  author: 'Jenn Schiffer',
  publisher: 'self-published',
  year: '2013'
};

Pull into one json object

basically our data is an array of books called "books"
{ 
  "books": [
    {
      title: 'Programming the WWW',
      author: 'Robert Sebesta',
      publisher: 'Pearson',
      year: '2012'
    },
    {
      title: 'Eloquent JavaScript',
      author: 'Marijn Heverbeke',
      publisher: 'No Starch Press',
      year: '2007'
    },
    {
      title: 'Intro to XML and Ajax (slides)',
      author: 'Jenn Schiffer',
      publisher: 'self-published',
      year: '2013'
    }
  ]
};

json in our html

 window.onload = function(){

		// get our list item
		var library = document.getElementById('books');
		
		// let's start ajax
		var xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest();

	    // JSON - when our http request is ready, print response to console
	    xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = function() {
	        if (xmlhttp.readyState == 4 && xmlhttp.status == 200) {
	            // print out all response text
	            var data = xmlhttp.responseText;
	            console.log(xmlhttp.responseText);

	            // parse json
	            var jsonData = JSON.parse(data);

	            // print out parsed JSON
	            console.log(jsonData);

	            // add titles to list
	            for ( var i = 0; i < jsonData.books.length; i++ ) {
	            	var title = jsonData.books[i].title;
	            	var listItem = document.createElement('li'); 
	            	listItem.innerHTML = title;
	            	library.appendChild(listItem);
	            }
	        }
	    }

	    // open the request and get the data
	    xmlhttp.open("GET", "books.json", true);
	    xmlhttp.send();
	};


In-class Activity


  1. Make a JSON object of your books and save it as a .json file
  2. Create a library like we did with XML but use an Ajax request to our new JSON instead

Introduction to XML

By Jenn Schiffer

Introduction to XML

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