POC bridging framework

Mick de Graaf, Liam Zebedee




For anything,

liam@liamz.co | @liamzebedee


  1. 'bridging' any token between any blockchain
  2. experimentation
  3. decentralized + federated

1. Any blockchain

Public, private
UXTO, accounts
​Take advantage of network effects



2. Experimentation

Encourage diversity

Hashlocked time contracts vs. multisig for Bitcoin

Reputation-based (lower cost)

Liquidity providers

Cosmos IBC, Polkadot fishermen

3. Decentralized federation

No trusted validators
"Mining" as opposed to remittance


One-to-one bridging


Finality parameters (Cosmos IBC)

Chain Interopability (2016):

  • timestamp on chain A is correct to within some error margin \( \delta_1 \)

  • timestamp on chain B is correct to within \( \delta_2 \),

  • message-passing latency between the chains is less than \( \delta_3 \)

Many-to-many bridging

  • M chains, N bridges
  • From O(M*N) to O(M+N) complexity


  • Use Merkle of Merkle trees for cross-chain causality (hashing is universal primitive)
  • Cross-chain bridge slashing
  • Only tokens of bridge are collateral damage

An early sketch


  • We want interop between chains of different flavours
  • Preferably not an intermediary chain
  • Free market of relayers

Further exploration

Sparse Merkle Trees (efficiency)

Liquidity providers

Cross-chain portfolios

Thank you.


By Liam Zebedee