Are all programming languages in English?

Michele Riva

Michele Riva

Senior Software Architect @NearForm

Google Developer Expert

Microsoft MVP

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Real-World Next.js

Build scalable, high performances and modern web applications using Next.js, the React framework for production

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A bit of history

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Konrad Zuse

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R1.1(V0[:sig]) => R0
R1.2(V0[:m x sig]) => R0
0 => i | m + 1 => j
[W [ i < j -> [ R1.1(V0[i: m x sig]) => R0 | i + 1 => i ] ] ]
END
R1.3() => R0
'H';'e';'l';'l';'o';',';' ','w';'o';'r';'l';'d';'!' => Z0[: m x sig] R1.2(Z0) => R0
END

"Hello, world!" in Plankalkül

Plankalkül

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Flow-Matic

1955 circa

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Flow-Matic

 (0)  INPUT INVENTORY FILE-A PRICE FILE-B ; OUTPUT PRICED-INV FILE-C UNPRICED-INV
     FILE-D ; HSP D .
 (1)  COMPARE PRODUCT-NO (A) WITH PRODUCT-NO (B) ; IF GREATER GO TO OPERATION 10 ;
     IF EQUAL GO TO OPERATION 5 ; OTHERWISE GO TO OPERATION 2 .
 (2)  TRANSFER A TO D .
 (3)  WRITE-ITEM D .
 (4)  JUMP TO OPERATION 8 .
 (5)  TRANSFER A TO C .
 (6)  MOVE UNIT-PRICE (B) TO UNIT-PRICE (C) .
 (7)  WRITE-ITEM C .
 (8)  READ-ITEM A ; IF END OF DATA GO TO OPERATION 14 .
 (9)  JUMP TO OPERATION 1 .
(10)  READ-ITEM B ; IF END OF DATA GO TO OPERATION 12 .
(11)  JUMP TO OPERATION 1 .
(12)  SET OPERATION 9 TO GO TO OPERATION 2 .
(13)  JUMP TO OPERATION 2 .
(14)  TEST PRODUCT-NO (B) AGAINST ; IF EQUAL GO TO OPERATION 16 ;
     OTHERWISE GO TO OPERATION 15 .
(15)  REWIND B .
(16)  CLOSE-OUT FILES C ; D .
(17)  STOP . (END)

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COBOL

1957 circa

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COBOL

//COBUCLG  JOB (001),'COBOL BASE TEST',                                 00010000
//             CLASS=A,MSGCLASS=A,MSGLEVEL=(1,1)                        00020000
//BASETEST EXEC COBUCLG                                                 00030000
//COB.SYSIN DD *                                                        00040000
 00000* VALIDATION OF BASE COBOL INSTALL                                00050000
 01000 IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.                                         00060000
 01100 PROGRAM-ID. 'HELLO'.                                             00070000
 02000 ENVIRONMENT DIVISION.                                            00080000
 02100 CONFIGURATION SECTION.                                           00090000
 02110 SOURCE-COMPUTER.  GNULINUX.                                      00100000
 02120 OBJECT-COMPUTER.  HERCULES.                                      00110000
 02200 SPECIAL-NAMES.                                                   00120000
 02210     CONSOLE IS CONSL.                                            00130000
 03000 DATA DIVISION.                                                   00140000
 04000 PROCEDURE DIVISION.                                              00150000
 04100 00-MAIN.                                                         00160000
 04110     DISPLAY 'HELLO, WORLD' UPON CONSL.                           00170000
 04900     STOP RUN.                                                    00180000
//LKED.SYSLIB DD DSNAME=SYS1.COBLIB,DISP=SHR                            00190000
//            DD DSNAME=SYS1.LINKLIB,DISP=SHR                           00200000
//GO.SYSPRINT DD SYSOUT=A                                               00210000
//                                                                      00220000

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Fortran

1957 circa

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Fortran

program average

  implicit none

  real, dimension(:), allocatable :: points
  integer                         :: number_of_points
  real                            :: average_points, positive_average, negative_average
  average_points = 0.0
  positive_average = 0.0
  negative_average = 0.0
  write (*,*) "Input number of points to average:"
  read  (*,*) number_of_points

  allocate (points(number_of_points))

  write (*,*) "Enter the points to average:"
  read  (*,*) points

  if (number_of_points > 0) average_points = sum(points) / number_of_points

  if (count(points > 0.) > 0) positive_average = sum(points, points > 0.) / count(points > 0.)
  if (count(points < 0.) > 0) negative_average = sum(points, points < 0.) / count(points < 0.)

  write (*,'(a,g12.4)') 'Average = ', average_points
  write (*,'(a,g12.4)') 'Average of positive points = ', positive_average
  write (*,'(a,g12.4)') 'Average of negative points = ', negative_average

end program average

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LISP

1958 circa

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LISP

(defun qsort (L)
  (cond
    ((null L) nil)
    (t
      (append
        (qsort (list< (car L) (cdr L)))
        (cons (car L) nil) 
        (qsort (list>= (car L) (cdr L)))))))

(defun list< (a b)
  (cond
    ((or (null a) (null b)) nil)
    ((< a (car b)) (list< a (cdr b)))
    (t (cons (car b) (list< a (cdr b))))))

(defun list>= (a b)
  (cond
    ((or (null a) (null b)) nil)
    ((>= a (car b)) (list>= a (cdr b)))
    (t (cons (car b) (list>= a (cdr b))))))

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ALGOL

1958 circa

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Edsger Dijkstra

1972

Niklaus Wirth

1984

Peter Naur

2005

Turing awards

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Algol

procedure Absmax(a) Size:(n, m) Result:(y) Subscripts:(i, k);
    value n, m; array a; integer n, m, i, k; real y;
comment The absolute greatest element of the matrix a, of size n by m 
is transferred to y, and the subscripts of this element to i and k;
begin integer p, q;
    y := 0; i := k := 1;
    for p:=1 step 1 until n do
    for q:=1 step 1 until m do
        if abs(a[p, q]) > y then
            begin y := abs(a[p, q]);
            i := p; k := q
            end
end Absmax

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Other important languages

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APL

L←(Lι':')↓L←,L        ⍝ drop To:
L←LJUST VTOM',',L     ⍝ mat with one entry per row
S←¯1++/∧\L≠'('        ⍝ length of address
X←0⌈⌈/S
L←S⌽(−(⍴L)+0,X)↑L    ⍝ align the (names)
A←((1↑⍴L),X)↑L       ⍝ address
N←0 1↓DLTB(0,X)↓L    ⍝ names)
N←,'⍺',N
N[(N='_')/ι⍴N]←' '    ⍝ change _ to blank
N←0 ¯1↓RJUST VTOM N  ⍝ names
S←+/∧\' '≠⌽N         ⍝ length of last word in name

1962

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Simula

Begin
   Procedure RightText(T, N, FitsIn); Text T; Integer N;
               Name FitsIn; Boolean FitsIn;
   Begin
      Integer I;
      FitsIn := N >= T.Length;   
      For i:=1 step 1 until N-T.Length do OutText(" ");
      OutText(T)
   End of RightText;
 
   RightText("Short", 30); OutImage;
   RightText("And the long one", 30);
End of Program;

1962

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CPL

Max(Items, ValueFunction) = value of
  § (Best, BestVal) = (NIL, -∞)
while Items do §
  (Item, Val) = (Head(Items), ValueFunction(Head(Items)))
    if Val > BestVal then (Best, BestVal) := (Item, Val)
  Items := Rest(Items) §⃒
result is Best §⃒

1963

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BASIC

05 HOME : TEXT : REM Fibonacci numbers 
10 LET MAX = 5000
20 LET X = 1 : LET Y = 1
30 IF (X > MAX) GOTO 100
40 PRINT X
50 X = X + Y
60 IF (Y > MAX) GOTO 100
70 PRINT Y
80 Y = X + Y
90 GOTO 30
100 END

1964

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B

main() {
	extrn putchar, n, v;
	auto i, c, col, a;

	i = col = 0;
	while(i<n)
		v[i++] = 1;
	while(col<2*n) {
		a = n+1;
		c = i = 0;
		while (i<n) {
			c =+ v[i] *10;
			v[i++]  = c%a;
			c =/ a--;
		}

		putchar(c+'0');
		if(!(++col%5))
			putchar(col%50?' ': '*n');
	}
	putchar('*n*n');
}
v[2000];
n 2000;

1969

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What makes these languages so important?

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CPL + B =

The C programming language

1972

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C

1972

C++

1985

Java

1995

C#

2000

C influence

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Scheme

1975

Caml

1985

Racket

1995

Clojure

2007

ML

1973

LISP influence

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Pascal

1985

Simula

1962

Delphi

1995

ALGOL influence

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Non-american languages

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Ole-Johan Dahl

Kristen Nygaard

Simula 🇳🇴

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Pascal 🇨🇭

 Niklaus Wirth

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Python 🇳🇱

Guido Van Rossum

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Ruby 🇯🇵

Yukihiro Matsumoto

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Elixir 🇧🇷

José Valim

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ML 🇫🇷

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Online Historical Encyclopaedia of Programming Languages

8.900+ known programming languages

~2.500 🇺🇸 

MicheleRivaCode

Online Historical Encyclopaedia of Programming Languages

8.900+ known programming languages

~2.500 🇺🇸 

~600 🇬🇧

MicheleRivaCode

Online Historical Encyclopaedia of Programming Languages

8.900+ known programming languages

~2.500 🇺🇸 

~600 🇬🇧

~160 🇨🇦

MicheleRivaCode

Online Historical Encyclopaedia of Programming Languages

8.900+ known programming languages

~2.500 🇺🇸 

~600 🇬🇧

~160 🇨🇦

~75 🇦🇺

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Symbolic programming languages

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APL

'Hello, world'

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APL

(~R∊R∘.×R)/R←1↓ιR

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K

2_&{&/x!/:2_!x}'!R

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J

quicksort=: (($:@(<#[), (=#[), $:@(>#[)) ({~ ?@#)) ^: (1<#)

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Lambda Calculus

λf.(λx.(f(xx))λx.(f(xx)))

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Prolog

partition([], _, [], []).
partition([X|Xs], Pivot, Smalls, Bigs) :-
    (   X @< Pivot ->
        Smalls = [X|Rest],
        partition(Xs, Pivot, Rest, Bigs)
    ;   Bigs = [X|Rest],
        partition(Xs, Pivot, Smalls, Rest)
    ).
 
quicksort([])     --> [].
quicksort([X|Xs]) -->
    { partition(Xs, X, Smaller, Bigger) },
    quicksort(Smaller), [X], quicksort(Bigger).

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Esoteric Programming Languages

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Brainfuck

+[-[<<[+[--->]-[<<<]]]>>>-]>-.---.>..>.<<<<-.<+.>>>>>.>.<<.<-.

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Choon

AGb-A#A#+A+%A#DF-AC#

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Elang

"" .H .e .l .l .o ., ._ .w .o .r .l .d .! ()

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Integ

](104)](101)](108)](108)](111)](44)](32)](119)](111)](114)](108)](100)](10)

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Ouroboros

S"Hello, World!"1( ewSoL!(

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Befunge

>>v
v1?2v
  3
> > >: v
    |-&<
    $
    >"!tcerroC">:v
               |,<
               @

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when would I typically use these languages?

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Sort numbers in a ragged list

https://codegolf.stackexchange.com/questions/244101/sort-numbers-in-a-ragged-list

input:  [[4, 7], [5, 3, [], [6, [2]]]
output: [[÷2, 3], [4, 5, [], [6, [7]]]]
FṢṁ

Jelly

N`\d+

Retina

1N→_a`\d+`?λ←_a1+→_a`\d+`?Ẏ⌊s←_a iS;øṙ

Vyxal

n=>n.replace(r=/\d+/g,_=>n.match(r).sort((a,b)=>a-b)[i++],i=0)

JavaScript

Non-textual programming languages

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Piet

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Piet

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Whitespace

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Whitespace

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Tab

Space

Velato

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Non-English-based programming languages

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Linotte

BonjourLeMonde:
début
affiche "Bonjour le monde!"

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SAKO

K) PROGRAM DRUKUJE NAPIS HELLO WORLD
   LINIA
   TEKST:
   HELLO WORLD
   KONIEC

System Automatycznego Kodowania Operacji

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Rapira

ПРОЦ СТАРТ()
    ВЫВОД: 'Привет, мир!'
КОН ПРОЦ

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ひまわり

「Hello, World!」と、表示。 ’母艦(メインフォーム)に表示。
「Hello, World!」と、言う。 ’ダイアログボックスで表示。

Himawari

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قلب

(قول "مرحبا يا عالم"‏)

Qalb

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易语言

公开 类 启动类
{
  公开 静态 启动()
  {
    控制台.输出("你好,世界!");
  }
}

EPL (Easy Programming Language)

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Bonus: CadregaLISP

$ ./brambilla

🍎 ▶ (ciapa x 5)
🍎 ▶ (+ x 10)
15
🍎 ▶ (ciapa-che! x 10)
🍎 ▶ (= x 5)
#è minga vera
🍎 ▶ fèrmes

https://github.com/micheleriva/CadregaLisp

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So, are all programming languages in English?

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nope!

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@MicheleRiva

@MicheleRivaCode

/in/MicheleRiva95

www.micheleriva.it

Are all programming languages in english?

By Michele Riva

Are all programming languages in english?

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