How web evolved and where is it heading?

@pankajparkar

@pankajparkar

Source: https://www.webranges.com/img/tech/webtechnologies.png

How Web Works?

Source: http://write.flossmanuals.net/summary-of-firefox/how-the-web-works/

@pankajparkar

  • HTML - HyperText Markup language

Tim Berners-Lee

Tim Berners-Lee invented www in 1989

  • HTTP - HyperText Transfer protocol
  • URI - Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
  • formed W3c.org comittee (1994)

Documents & other resource sharing

World wide web - The Web

@pankajparkar

Pankaj P. Parkar

Technical Lead

Synerzip Softech India PVT LTD

  • Microsoft MVP (3 times)

  • Opensource Contributor

  • Stackoverflow Topuser for Angular and AngularJS

  • 100k+ reps on Stackoverflow

  • Community Contributor

About Me!

@pankajparkar

First Web Page

Source: https://home.cern/topics/birth-web

  • First went live in 1993, though it was ready in 1991
  • There are hyperlinks to navigate between different resuouces

Static HTML Pages

  • Vertical Layout only
  • Content wasn't dynamic
  • Alignment of element was tough (No CSS intially)
  • Browser were able to understand only HTML
  • Img tag with .gif support

@pankajparkar

HTML Journey

HTML 1.0 (1991)

HTML 2.0 (1995)

Form, table(with ceavate), input, button, etc.

form-based file upload, tables, etc

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Cascade StyleSheet (CSS)

December, 1996

JavaScript (JS)

December, 1997

Brendan Eich

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HTML 3.2 (Jan 1997)

HTML 4 (Dec 1997)

 w3c recommended 1st version

standard released under

HTML Journey

HTML 3 (Sept 1996)

Abandoned version

Become official standard Jan 1998

@pankajparkar

@pankajparkar

Source: http://royal.pingdom.com/2007/12/07/a-history-of-the-dynamic-web/

@pankajparkar

  • Technology like .Net, Java, php, etc came with aspx, jsp, applets, etc. pages to serve web pages with code behind written in there respective languages.
  • These technologies bound data to html page on Server Side itself.
  • Generates dynamic page on server before serving it to client

Adoption of Web

@pankajparkar

Source: http://www.scottgu.com/blogposts/viewdata/step5.png

ASPX Page(.Net)

@pankajparkar

Source: https://docs.jboss.org/tools/4.0.1.Final/en/GettingStartedGuide/html/jsp_application.html

JSP Page (Java)

@pankajparkar

Client

/default.aspx
/main.jsp

html render page

View / Template

Engine

Find page based on route

Rendered

Page

Server Side Rendering

DB

Server

Challenges

  • Pulling large dataset on server and render whole page on server takes time
  • Data binding workload on Server side
  • Initial page load time was too high in these cases

@pankajparkar

MVC, MVVM, MVP, MVV patterns

  • Primarily people focused on segregating clutter code
  • Code segregation added significant amount of improvement in performance and maintenance.
  • Different patterns were accommodated by all competitor market vendors.

@pankajparkar

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

<widget>
	<debug>on</debug>
	<window title="Sample Konfabulator Widget">
		<name>main_window</name>
		<width>500</width>
		<height>500</height>
	</window>
	<image src="Images/Sun.png" name="sun1">
		<hOffset>250</hOffset>
		<vOffset>250</vOffset>
		<alignment>center</alignment>
	</image>
	<text data="Click Here" size="36" style="bold">
		<name>text1</name>
		<hOffset>250</hOffset>
		<vOffset>100</vOffset>
		<alignment>center</alignment>
		<onMouseUp>
			sun1.opacity = (sun1.opacity / 100) * 90;
		</onMouseUp>
	</text>
</widget>

@pankajparkar

Flash Animations

  • Dependency on Flash Player (heavy plugin)
  • Animation on web + embeded audio / video Support
  • Different Flash games were made
  • ActionScript was used to perform actions

Source: http://digg.com/2017/best-most-memorable-adobe-flash-websites

@pankajparkar

XMLHttpRequest

  • Designed by Microsoft in 1999
  • Use for loading dynamic content on client side
  • Shipped with Internet Explorer 7.0
  • This helps to refresh part of page.
  • In 2005 jQuery made wrapper around XHR object which is known Ajax. It went viral afterwards.
  • In 2005 Yahoo begun offering Web Services in JSON 

aka XHR (1999)

var request = new XMLHTTPRequest();  
request.onload = function() {  
    console.log(this.responseText);
};
request.open('get', 'endpointUrl');  
request.send();  

@pankajparkar

{
    "widget": {
        "debug": "on",
        "window": {
            "title": "Sample Konfabulator Widget",
            "name": "main_window",
            "width": 500,
            "height": 500
        },
        "image": {
            "src": "Images/Sun.png",
            "name": "sun1",
            "hOffset": 250,
            "vOffset": 250,
            "alignment": "center"
        },
        "text": {
            "data": "Click Here",
            "size": 36,
            "style": "bold",
            "alignment": "center",
            "onMouseUp": "sun1.opacity = (sun1.opacity / 100) * 90;"
        }
    }
}

JSON

  • Douglas Crockford first specified and popularized the JSON format
  • Its way simpler, lighter, readable than XML.

(early 2000)

@pankajparkar

Adoption to RESTful API / Web Services

  • People started converting their Server to Restful API
  • It would consume by multiple type of application like Native Mobile App, desktop app, etc.
  • Earlier Javascript was only used for displaying alert / validation messages. 
  • Now days Javascript perform major role on client side user interaction.

@pankajparkar

Server

/index.html

Parse and Render it

Request initial page

Ask for dynamic data using XHR

Client Side Rendering

html page content

DB

​HTML

CSS

JS

/user/data

response

Client Side Rendering

People started thinking to render their application using AJAX dynamically

@pankajparkar

Separated HTML page

home.html

contact.html

about.html

<html>
  <head>
    <link href="style.css" />
    <script src="app.js"></script>
  </head>
  <body>
    <header></header>
    <section>
      <sidebar></sidebar>
      Home Content
    </section>
    <footer></footer>
  </body>
</html>
<html>
  <head>
    <link href="style.css" />
    <script src="app.js"></script>
  </head>
  <body>
    <header></header>
    <section>
      <sidebar></sidebar>
      Contact Content
    </section>
    <footer></footer>
  </body>
</html>
<html>
  <head>
    <link href="style.css" />
    <script src="app.js"></script>
  </head>
  <body>
    <header></header>
    <section>
      <sidebar></sidebar>
      About Content
    </section>
    <footer></footer>
  </body>
</html>

@pankajparkar

Single Page Application

(SPA)

  • Super fast in terms of UX interaction.
  • Navigation between pages are smother
  • Full browser features usage by Client Side Rendering 
  • Strategy is to replace placeholder with template based on URL.

index.html

<html>
  <head>
    <link href="style.css" />
    <script src="app.bundle.js"></script>
  </head>
  <body>
    <header></header>
    <section>
      <sidebar></sidebar>
      <placeholder></placeholder>
    </section>
    <footer></footer>
  </body>
</html>

URL: #/home

URL: #/about

URL: #/contact

<div>
   Home Content
<div>
<div>
 About Content
<div>
<div>
 Contact Content
<div>

Single Page Application (SPA) cont..

Few Problems

  • Initial Page load is too high
  • SEO becomes difficult

Solutions

  • Bundling & minification
  • Compression techniques like gzip, deflate of static files
  • Lazy-loading.
  • SEO problem can be solved by using hashbang mode

@pankajparkar

Mobile Web

  • Responsive design
  • Low end mobile devices takes more time to load web application developed for Desktop site.

@pankajparkar

Source: https://medium.com/dev-channel/the-cost-of-javascript-84009f51e99e

Flash Died

  • Site made with flash takes longer to load.
  • Heavy on mobiles.
  • No smart SEO on embedded Flash
  • In 2007 Iphone stop supporting flash
  • In 2007 audio and video API support added unofficially.

Responsive Design

Bootstrap (2011)

Foundation (2011)

Twitter (2006)

Zurb

@pankajparkar

Data Binding

@pankajparkar

  • Earlier day Data binding was quite difficult task in CSR
  • In 2010 two fellows ( knockout & backbone ) came and solved multiple issues of web 
  • Even these framework used to create SPA.
  • But eventually there were several issues with complex data model binding.
  • Later angularjs came around 2012, addressed the missing stuff elegantly.
  • Afterwards other framework came like react, vue, aurelia, mithrill, Angular, etc.

Data Binding + SPA

@pankajparkar

Still we need Faster page loading time...

@pankajparkar

Serverside rendering

using node

  • Understand & Run on Javascript
  • Has chrome v8 engine
  • Can easily help to render dynamic view which uses js
  • No need to worry about SEO, as server is going to return full fledge HTML

@pankajparkar

Isomorphic Application

  • Same code works on server side and client side rendering
  • Create single page application without having to wait long time
  • Run javascript on browser and server side via nodejs

@pankajparkar

Web Development Cycle

Static Pages

Server side rendering

Dynamic page rendering

AJax & JSON

Single Page App

Bundling & Minifiction

Lazyloading & code spliting

Isomorphic App

(with node)

@pankajparkar

Where current web is heading..?

@pankajparkar

HTTP2 / H2

  • One TCP connection 
  • Streams are multiplexed and prioritised. 
  • Header Compression (HPACK)
  • Binary framing layer
    • Prioritisation
    • Flow Control
    • Server push

@pankajparkar

Service Worker

  • A service like worker that is run by browser in background, separate from browser
  • It don't have access to DOM
  • It helps in offline caching
  • Can take control over http request
  • Only works in https environment

@pankajparkar

Progressive Web Apps (PWA)

  • Faster page load
  • One click away from accessing content.
  • Smooth animation and navigation.
  • Re-engages with push notification.
  • Good experience over flack internet connection
  • Consistent experience across browsers.
  • Eg. Forbes, flipkart, olx, pinterest, trivago, etc.

@pankajparkar

Web Component

  • HTML and DOM specifications that allow for the creation of reusable widgets or components in web documents and web applications
  • Main reason is to bring component based design engineering

@pankajparkar

Web Assembly

(wasm)

  • WebAssembly is a new type of code that can be run in modern web browsers.
  • it provides a way to run code written in multiple languages on the web at near native speed, with client apps running on the web that previously couldn’t have done so.

@pankajparkar

SSR + PWA

+  HTTP2

+  Service Worker

+  Web Components

+  WebAssembly

+ AI + ML (Conversation UI)

+  etc...

@pankajparkar

@pankajparkar

Q & A

@pankajparkar

References

  • http://wiki.c2.com/?ModelViewControllerHistory
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representational_state_transfer
  • https://medium.freecodecamp.org/bd5c786b340d
  • https://www.w3.org/Style/CSS20/history.html
  • ​http://www.yourhtmlsource.com/starthere/historyofhtml.html
  • http://royal.pingdom.com/2007/12/07/a-history-of-the-dynamic-web/
  • http://blog.sqlizer.io/posts/json-history/
  • https://thehistoryoftheweb.com/the-story-of-flash/
  • https://www.demacmedia.com/css3-animation/
  • http://adaptivepath.org/ideas/ajax-new-approach-web-applications/

@pankajparkar

How Web evolved and where is it heading?

By Pankaj Parkar

How Web evolved and where is it heading?

This session will cover how web evolved over a time. Also it briefs about what are the major factors that considered as bottlenecks and how it got addressed by various techniques in the evolution journey.

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