Open data mobility simulations

and applications

Sebastian Hörl

25 February 2021

at IRT SystemX

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2016800172/

The street in 1900

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atlanta_75.85.jpg

The street today

  • Autonomous Mobility

  • Mobility as a Service

  • Mobility on Demand

  • Electrification

  • Aerial Mobility

Julius Bär / Farner

The street of tomorrow?

I. MATSim

Senozon VIA

https://pixabay.com/en/traffic-jam-stop-and-go-rush-hour-143391/

Agent-based models

Senozon VIA

  • Flexible, extensible and well-tested open-source transport simulation framework
     
  • Used by many research groups and companies all over the world
     
  • Extensions for parking behaviour, signal control, location choice, freight, ...

http://www.matsim.org

matsim-org/matsim-libs

MATSim

Mobility simulation

Decision-making

Analysis

Scenario

  • Flexible, extensible and well-tested open-source transport simulation framework
     
  • Used by many research groups and companies all over the world
     
  • Extensions for parking behaviour, signal control, location choice, freight, ...

MATSim

Senozon VIA

MATSim

Home

Work

Shop

Home

until 8am

9am to 6pm

6:15m to 6:30pm

from 6:45pm

walk

public

transport

walk

MATSim

P(k) = \frac{\exp(U_k)}{\sum_i \exp(U_i)}

Discrete mode choice

Discrete mode choice

https://pixabay.com/en/zurich-historic-center-churches-933732/

II. AMoD in Zurich

Cost structures?

User preferences?

System impact?

Cost Calculator for automated mobility

Stated preference survey

MATSim simulation

1

2

3

What do we know about automated vehicles?

Bösch, P.M., F. Becker, H. Becker and K.W. Axhausen (2018) Cost-based analysis of autonomous mobility services, Transport Policy, 64, 76-91

Mobility cost calulcator

Felix Becker, Institute for Transport Planning and Systems, ETH Zurich.

Survey

Survey

13 CHF/h


 

AMoD

Taxi

19 CHF/h

 

 

Conventional

Car

12 CHF/h
 

 

Public

Transport

Car by Adrien Coquet from the Noun Project

Bus by Simon Farkas from the Noun Project

Wait by ibrandify from the Noun Project

AMoD

Survey

VTTS

Car by Adrien Coquet from the Noun Project

Bus by Simon Farkas from the Noun Project

Wait by ibrandify from the Noun Project

13 CHF/h
 

 

AMoD

Taxi

19 CHF/h

 

 

Conventional

Car

12 CHF/h
 

 

Public

Transport

 
21 CHF/h

 


32 CHF/h

AMoD

Survey

VTTS

Calibration

Fleet sizing width dynamic demand

Fleet sizing width dynamic demand

Fleet sizing width dynamic demand

Cost calculator

Plan modification

Discrete Mode Choice Extension

Mobility simulation

Prediction

Price

Trips

- Utilization

- Empty distance, ...

- Travel times

- Wait times, ...

Model sturcture

Automated taxi

Pickup

Dropoff

Visualisation

Hörl, S., F. Becker and K.W. Axhausen (2020) Automated Mobility on Demand: A comprehensive simulation study of cost, behaviour and system impact for Zurich

Results

Hörl, S., F. Becker and K.W. Axhausen (2020) Automated Mobility on Demand: A comprehensive simulation study of cost, behaviour and system impact for Zurich

Results

Hörl, S., F. Becker and K.W. Axhausen (2020) Automated Mobility on Demand: A comprehensive simulation study of cost, behaviour and system impact for Zurich

13% reduction in vehicles

100% increase in VKT

Results

Hörl, S., C. Ruch, F. Becker, E. Frazzoli and K.W. Axhausen (2019) Fleet operational policies for automated mobility: a simulation assessment for Zurich, Transportation Research: Part C, 102, 20-32.

Fleet control ...

Load-balancing heuristic

Simple heuristic, fast runtime

 

Gloal Euclidean Bipartite Matching

Standard algorithm in Operations Research

?

?

Car by Adrien Coquet from the Noun Project

Hail by Bradley Avison from the Noun Project

Fleet control

Assignment

Undersupply

  • More vehicles than requests
  • When request pops up
    find closest vehicle

Oversupply

  • More requests than vehicles
  • When vehicle gets available
    find closest request

able to serve remote demand

able to serve remote demand

able to serve peek demand

Hörl, S., C. Ruch, F. Becker, E. Frazzoli and K.W. Axhausen (2019) Fleet operational policies for automated mobility: a simulation assessment for Zurich, Transportation Research: Part C, 102, 20-32.

Fleet control

Load-balancing heuristic

  • Find matching of vehicles and requests that minimizes total Euclidean (or network-based) empty distance
     
  • Nice benchmark because sole objective is to minimize empty distance

Hörl, S., C. Ruch, F. Becker, E. Frazzoli and K.W. Axhausen (2019) Fleet operational policies for automated mobility: a simulation assessment for Zurich, Transportation Research: Part C, 102, 20-32.

Fleet control

Global Bipartite Matching

Feedforward Fluidic Optimal Rebalancing Policy

Linear program matching a priori known trip rates

 

Adaptive Uniform Rebalancing Policy

Linear program distributing vehicles uniformly

Car by Adrien Coquet from the Noun Project

Hail by Bradley Avison from the Noun Project

?

?

?

?

Fleet control

Redistribution

Travel time

Rebalancing flows

Arrival rate

Transition probability

Hörl, S., C. Ruch, F. Becker, E. Frazzoli and K.W. Axhausen (2019) Fleet operational policies for automated mobility: a simulation assessment for Zurich, Transportation Research: Part C, 102, 20-32.

Fleet control

Feed-forward fluidic rebalancing

Travel time

Rebalancing flows

Arrival rate

Transition probability

  • Informed algorithm from historical data
     
  • Minimization of rebalancing time
     
  • Minimization of waiting time?

Hörl, S., C. Ruch, F. Becker, E. Frazzoli and K.W. Axhausen (2019) Fleet operational policies for automated mobility: a simulation assessment for Zurich, Transportation Research: Part C, 102, 20-32.

Fleet control

Feed-forward fluidic rebalancing

Vehicles per zone

Current requests

  • Minimization of rebalancing time
     
  • Working on current information
     
  • Uniform distribution of vehicles

Hörl, S., C. Ruch, F. Becker, E. Frazzoli and K.W. Axhausen (2019) Fleet operational policies for automated mobility: a simulation assessment for Zurich, Transportation Research: Part C, 102, 20-32.

Fleet control

Adaptive uniform rebalancing

III. Paris Scenario

https://pixabay.com/en/paris-eiffel-tower-night-city-view-3296269/

Population synthesis

Travel demand synthesis

Mobility simulation

(MATSim)

  • Framework to easily set up runnable MATSim (and other) simulations
     
  • Collection of open source tools and algorithms for transport simulation
     
  • Focus on process from raw data to final results for reproducible research
     
  • Increase interoperability of models

Data

Analysis

Two components =

eqasim

Census data

Récensement de la population

RP

Icons on this and following slides: https://fontawesome.com // Background: Simunto VIA

Île-de-France

Dispositif sur les revenus localisés sociaux et fiscaux
Income tax data

RP

FiLo
SoFi

 

Île-de-France

RP: Flux de mobilité
Commuting data

RP

RP
Mob

 

FiLoSoFi

Île-de-France

Enquête globale de transport
Household Travel Survey

RP

EGT

FiLoSoFi

RP Mob

Enquête national transports et deplacements
Household Travel Survey

ENTD

Île-de-France

Enquête globale de transport
Household Travel Survey

RP

EGT

FiLoSoFi

RP Mob

Enquête national transports et deplacements
Household Travel Survey

ENTD

Île-de-France

SIRENE
Enterprise census

RP

S

FiLoSoFi

RP Mob

EGT

ENTD

BD-TOPO
Address database

BD

Île-de-France

Île-de-France

RP

FiLoSoFi

RP Mob

EGT

ENTD

SIRENE

Person ID    

Age

Gender

Home (X,Y)

1

43

male

(65345, ...)

2

24

female

(65345, ...)

3

9

female

(65345, ...)

BD-TOPO

RP

FiLoSoFi

RP Mob

EGT

ENTD

SIRENE

Person ID    

Activity

Start

End

Loc.

523

home

08:00

(x,y)

523

work

08:55

18:12

(x,y)

523

shop

19:10

19:25

(x,y)

523

home

19:40

(x,y)

Person ID    

Mode

Start

End

523

Public T.

08:55

523

Public T.

18:12

19:10

523

Walking

19:25

19:40

08:00

BD-TOPO

Île-de-France

OpenStreetMap
Road network

RP

OSM

FiLoSoFi

RP Mob

EGT

ENTD

IDFm GTFS
Public transport schedule

GTFS

SIRENE

OSM

GTFS

Île-de-France

BD-TOPO

Open
Data

Open
Software

+

=

Reproducible research

Verifiable results

Integrated testing

  • Hörl, S. and M. Balac (2021) Open data travel demand synthesis for agent-based transport simulation: A case study of Paris and Île-de-France, Under review.

RP

FiLoSoFi

RP Mob

EGT

ENTD

SIRENE

OSM

GTFS

Île-de-France

BD-TOPO

Even more data!

  • Since January 2021 opening up of most of the data of IGN
  • Detailed road network for all France
  • Detailed building footprints with height, utilisation, number of appartments, ...

RP

FiLoSoFi

RP Mob

EGT

ENTD

SIRENE

OSM

GTFS

Other regions ...

BD-TOPO

Replace for Lyon, Toulouse, Lille, ...

IV. French use cases

Emissions in Île-de-France

Grand Paris Express

Hörl, S., M. Balac and K.W. Axhausen (2019) Dynamic demand estimation for an AMoD system in Paris, paper presented at the 30th IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, June 2019, Paris, France.

Travel Behaviour

Zurich model, calibrated
for Paris population

Cost sturcture

Adapted from Berlin

AMoD Simulation

Load-balancing heuristic

Automated taxis in Paris

Hörl, S., M. Balac and K.W. Axhausen (2019) Dynamic demand estimation for an AMoD system in Paris, paper presented at the 30th IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, June 2019, Paris, France.

Travel Behaviour

Zurich model, calibrated
for Paris population

Cost sturcture

Adapted from Berlin

AMoD Simulation

Load-balancing heuristic

Maximum static demand: 2.3M trips

Automated taxis in Paris

Hörl, S., M. Balac and K.W. Axhausen (2019) Dynamic demand estimation for an AMoD system in Paris, paper presented at the 30th IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, June 2019, Paris, France.

Travel Behaviour

Zurich model, calibrated
for Paris population

Cost sturcture

Adapted from Berlin

AMoD Simulation

Load-balancing heuristic

Maximum static demand: 2.3M trips

Automated taxis in Paris

V. French community

Nantes (Université Gustave Eiffel)

  • Population synthesis
  • Noise modelling
     
  • Contact: Valentin Le Bescond

Current use cases

Lille (IMT Lille Douai)

  • Park & ride applications
  • Road pricing
  • See ABMTRANS 2021
     
  • Contact: Azise Diallo

Current use cases

Toulouse (Odyssee)

  • Placement and use of shared offices
     
  • Contact: Vincent Loubière

Current use cases

Rennes (Tellae)

  • Micromobility services
  • Custom simulator: Starling
     
  • Contact: Vincent Leblond

Current use cases

Paris / Île-de-France
(LVMT / Ecole de Ponts ParisTech)

  • Scenario development for sustainable urban transformation
     
  • Contact: Nicolas Coulombel

Current use cases

Paris / Île-de-France
(IFP energies nouvelles)

  • Simulation of cycling and connection to crowdsourced data (see ABMTRANS 2021)
     
  • Simulation of home office used based on Covid surveys
     
  • Contact: Alexandre Chasse

Current use cases

Paris / Île-de-France
(IRT SystemX)

  • Simulation of automated shuttle services (see later today)

Current use cases

Lyon (IRT SystemX)

  • Low-emission parcel delivery simulations

Current use cases

Current use cases

Current use cases

Getting started

Documentation where to get the data sets

git clone https://github.com/eqasim-org/ile-de-france
conda env create -f environment.yml
python3 -m synpp config_ile_de_france.yml

Getting started

Documentation where to get the data sets

git clone https://github.com/eqasim-org/ile-de-france
conda env create -f environment.yml
python3 -m synpp config_ile_de_france.yml

Getting started

Documentation where to get the data sets

git clone https://github.com/eqasim-org/ile-de-france
conda env create -f environment.yml
python3 -m synpp config_ile_de_france.yml

Getting started

Documentation where to get the data sets

git clone https://github.com/eqasim-org/ile-de-france
conda env create -f environment.yml
python3 -m synpp config_ile_de_france.yml

Also ...

VI. Projects at              

Developments in LEAD

  • "Digital twins for low emissions last-mile logistics"
     
  • Use case: Confluence area in Lyon
     
  • Scenario development for parcel delivery
    • Population / business growth
    • Use of an urban distribution center with cargo-bikes, delivery robots, ...

Lyon

Confluence

First proof-of-concept

Study design

Baseline

  • Synthetic population
  • Generated deliveries
  • Background freight traffic

Hub analysis

Case scenarios

Hub analysis

Future scenarios

  • Sizing of distribution center
     
  • Sizing of distribution fleet
  • Size of distribution vehicles
     
  • Shared of deliveries
    (Strict / soft zero-emission zone)
     
  • Which configurations are feasible and effective?
  • Increase of population
  • Change of demographics
  • ... and generated deliveries
     
  • Static increase of background freight (Interface Transport)

+

Automatic calibration

Rechereche exploratoire

  • Automatic calibration of model parameters

Automatic calibration

Rechereche exploratoire

  • Automatic calibration of model parameters

Automatic calibration

Rechereche exploratoire

  • Automatic calibration of model parameters

Automatic calibration

Rechereche exploratoire

  • Automatic stopping of the simulation

Hörl, S., Becker, F., Axhausen, K.W. (2021) Simulation of price, customer behaviour and system impact for a cost-covering automated taxi system in Zurich, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 123, 102974.

Automatic calibration

Rechereche exploratoire

  • Which objective to use?
  • Which algorithm to use? Which hyper-parameters?
  • Which stabilisation criteria to use?
  • Multiple approaches already available:
    • SPSA, CMA-ES, basic Opdyts, ...

MOIA

  • Volkswagen's shared taxi service
     
  • Operating in Hanover and Hamburg
     
  • Using MATSim to simulate their services

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MOIA_01.jpg

MOIA I

  • First project
    Nov 2020 - Feb 2021
     
  • Implementation of services classes in MATSim simulation
     
  • Compatibility with shift and break simulation for drivers
     
  • Compatibility with algorithm by Alonso-Mora and AMoDeus framework

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MOIA_01.jpg

MOIA II

  • Second project
    Mar 2021 - Jul 2021
     
  • Parallelisation of algorithms
     
  • Model development for Hamburg
     
  • Prebooking and request clustering
    • Link thesis Tarek Chouaki
       
  • Cross-nested logit models

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MOIA_01.jpg

Thank you!

Questions ?

Contact: sebastian.horl@irt-systemx.fr

MATSim at IRT SystemX

By Sebastian Hörl

MATSim at IRT SystemX

IRT SystemX, 25 February 2021

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