Benford’s law to detect

GAN-generated images

What is the probability that the population of any country starts with the digit:


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9?

Is it really equiprobable?

Country Population (million)
France 66.99
Belgium 11.46
... ...
USA 328.2

Simon Newcomb

Discovered Benford's law in 1881


Frank Benford

Rediscovered Benford's law in 1938

Pixel value (0 - 255)

Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT)

Quantized DCT


Quantization Matrix

K blocks

k-th block 8x8 px

First digit distribution

Results show that GAN-generated images often fail in respecting Benford’s law, thus can be discriminated from natural pictures.

 [...], this suggests to possibly embed Benford’s law into GAN loss function in order to obtain even more realistic images.

Thank you !

Data Engineer


WTM Ambassador


Benford's law to detect GAN-generated images

By Tiffany Souterre

Benford's law to detect GAN-generated images

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