GAN-generated images

What is the probability that the population of any country starts with the digit:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9?

Is it really equiprobable?

Country Population (million)
France 66.99
Belgium 11.46
... ...
USA 328.2

Simon Newcomb

Discovered Benford's law in 1881

P(\color{orange}d\color{white})=log_b(1+\frac{1}{\color{orange}d})

Frank Benford

Rediscovered Benford's law in 1938

Pixel value (0 - 255)

Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT)

Quantized DCT

DCT

Quantization Matrix

K blocks

k-th block 8x8 px

First digit distribution

Results show that GAN-generated images often fail in respecting Benford’s law, thus can be discriminated from natural pictures.

[...], this suggests to possibly embed Benford’s law into GAN loss function in order to obtain even more realistic images.

Data Engineer

@JemsGroup