Vera C. Rubin Observatory:

Federica Bianco

 

University of Delaware

Department of Physics and Astronomy

Biden School of Public Policy and Administration

Data  Science Institute

 

 

Rubin Legacy Survey of Space and Time

Deputy Project Scientist, Rubin Construction

Interim Head of Science, Rubin Operation

what's in a name?

Rubin Obs is the first ground-based US National Observatory named after a woman astrophysicist, Dr. 

Vera Florence Cooper Rubin  

pioneered studies of Dark Matter through rotational curves

VRO

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

Rubin Observatory

Site: Cerro Pachon, Chile

Funding: US NSF + DOE

Status: final phases of construction - completion expected 2025

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

LSST Science Drivers

Probing Dark Energy and Dark Matter

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

image credit ESO-Gaia

LSST Science Drivers

Mapping the Milky Way and Local Volume

via resolved stellar population

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

An unprecedented inventory of the Solar System from threatening NEO to the distant Oort Cloud

LSST Science Drivers

LSST Science Drivers

image credit: ESA-Justyn R. Maund 

Exploring the Transients and Variable Universe

10M alerts every night shared with the world

60 seconds after observation

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

 

 

 

 

To accomplish this, we need:

1) a large telescope mirror to be sensitive - 8m (6.7m)

2) a large field-of-view for sky-scanning speed - 10 deg2

3) high spatial resolution, high quality images - 0.2''/pixels

4) process images in realtime and offline to produce live alerts and catalogs of all 37B objects 

 

 

 

2M 3,200 Megapixel images in 10 years -about 60 PB of data

Objective: provide a science-ready dataset to transform the 4 key science area

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

2026

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

@fedhere

At this level of precision,everything is variable, everything is blended, everything is moving.

SDSS

LSST-like HSC composite

Field of View'
Image resolution'

DDFs'
Standard visit'
Photometric precision'
Photometric accuracy'
Astrometric precision'
Astrometric accuracy'
9.6 sq deg
0.2'' (seeing limited)

5 DDF
30 sec
5 mmag
10 mmag
10 mas
50 mas

' requirement: ls.st/srd

*simulation pstn-054.lsst.io

SDSS 2x4 arcmin sq griz

MYSUC (Gawiser 2014) 1 mag shallower than LSST coadds

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

u,g,r,i,z,y
Photometric filters'
saturation limit'
# visits*
mag single image*
mag coadd*
Nominal cadence
​u, g, r, i, z, y
~15, 16, 16, 16, 15, 14
53, 70, 185, 192, 168, 165
23.34, 23.2, 24.05, 23.55 22.03
25.4, 26.9, 27.0, 26.5, 25.8, 24.9
2-3 visits per night

At this level of precision,everything is variable, everything is blended, everything is moving.

' requirement: ls.st/srd

*simulation pstn-054.lsst.io

Rubin Observatory Status

@fedhere

September 2016

@fedhere

Fabruary 2020

@fedhere

May 2022

@fedhere

November 2022

@fedhere

May 2022

The DOE LSST Camera - 3.2 Gigapixel

3024 science raft amplifier channels

Camera and Cryostat integration completed at SLAC in May 2022,

Shutter and filter auto-changer integrated into camera body

LSSTCam undergoing final stages of testing at SLAC

May 2022 - Telescope Mount Assembly

 

weight 2e5 kg, max slew rate 0.2 rad/s

Most of the weight in a 10m disk
Angular momentum

 

5,000,000 ~kg~m^2 s^{-1}

LSST

data products

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

Time

Domain

Science

 

Static

Science

Alerts based

 

Catalog based

Deep stack

based

Deep stack

based

Data Products

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

world public!

Rubin Observatory LSST 

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

data right holders only

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

ok but when????????????

late 2024-

early 2025

mid 2025

~2 years

from now

First data release ~3y from now

alerts build up

LSST survey strategy optimization

Rubin LSST survey design

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

Rubin LSST survey design

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

KN

Rubin LSST survey design

Rubin has involved the community to an unprecedented level in survey design this is a uniquely "democratic" process!

Survey Cadence Optimization Committee

Operation Simulator (OpSim)

simulates the catalog of LSST observations + observation properties

 

Metric Analysi Framwork (MAF)

Python API to interact with OpSims specifying science performance on a science case with a metric

Lynne Jones

Peter Yoachim

~100s simulations

~1000s MAFs

Rubin LSST survey design

Rubin LSST survey design

20+ peer review papers accepted several more under review and in preparation https://iopscience.iop.org/journal/0067-0049/page/rubin_cadence

Rubin LSST survey design

Rubin has involved the community to an unprecedented level in survey design this is a uniquely "democratic" process!

2017

Rubin LSST survey design

Rubin has involved the community to an unprecedented level in survey design this is a uniquely "democratic" process!

2019

Rubin LSST survey design

Rubin has involved the community to an unprecedented level in survey design this is a uniquely "democratic" process!

2023

Rubin LSST survey design

Rubin has involved the community to an unprecedented level in survey design this is a uniquely "democratic" process!

2024

Marshall et al. 2017

Mortersen et al. 2019

Kilonovae in LSST Wide Fast Deep

 

Smith +2019

Ragosta+ et al. 2023

Marshall et al. 2017

Mortersen et al. 2019

Kilonovae in LSST Wide Fast Deep

 

Smith +2019

Ragosta+ et al. 2023

Kilonovae in LSST Wide Fast Deep

 Presto-Color, Bianco+ 2019

Identified an issue with the original survey plan:

2 intranight obs in same filer +

2 intranight obs in another filter ~5 day later

Proposed 3 intranight obs

2 within 1 hour in different filters

1 at 4-8 hours separation w repeat filter

cepheid

 

 

  • Kilonovae
  • SN-GRB breakout
  • Fast Radio Bursts
  • X-ray binary stars,
  • cataclysmic variable stars,
  • blazars
  • stellar flares
  • solar system occultations
  • technosignatures

Željko Ivezić et al 2019 ApJ 873 111

LSST: From Science Drivers to Reference Design and Anticipated Data Products

# pairs of observations (1e5)

time gaps (days)

based on 2017 LSST simulations

With a naive survey strategy the 2-14 hours time scales where significantly undersamples

Kilonovae in LSST Wide Fast Deep

Give me a few hours, Bellm+ 2019

Assuming:
a rate of  800/Gpc^3/y

uniform luminosity function

 

=> ~350 GW170817-like kilonovae are expected to be present in Rubin data,

 => 3 – 32 might be identified using ZTFReST-like algorithms on pre 2018 simulations

 

Kilonovae in LSST Wide Fast Deep

Andreoni+ 2022a

newer simulations ->

<-bad         good ->

2023 simulations: 62% improvement

newer simulations ->

4 – 24 hour gaps between epochs will enable kilonova parameter estimation

 

Kilonovae in LSST Wide Fast Deep

Andreoni+ 2022a

Rubin LSST survey design

(~current plan: the Wide Fast Deep 75-90% of the sky time)

The main Rubin assets are the 10 sqdeg FoV + rapid slew + depth

PSTN-055 (2022): The SCOC recommends a ToO program be enabled to respond to Gravitational Waves and MMA triggers with a fraction of ≤ 3% of dedicated survey time, with the possibility of extending it to additional types of targets in the future.

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

Rubin ToO program

Andreoni+ 2022b

+80 authors!

Rubin ToO program

Andreoni+ 2022b

Registration for online participation open through March 15th!

https://lssttooworkshop.github.io/

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

This is a workshop: the goal of the workshop is to produce a report to be delivered to the SCOC containing recommendations for how to implement ToO responses with Rubin. There are no talks.Time is dedicated to collaboratively working toward the workshop report.  

Rubin ToO program

 

 

SOC: I. Andreoni (KN), F. Bianco, A. Franckowiak (ν), T. Lister (Solar System),

R. Margutti (KN, GRB), G. Smith (Lensed KN)

Nominal ToO strategy from Andreoni+2022b

The LSST@europe series

has been exploring synergies with European missions and surveys

 

LSST@Europe6 - 2024 La Palma-  Spain

Synergy and Survey coordination

 

Synergy and Survey coordination

 

In preparation for Roman’s launch and operations, our analysis suggests to (i) make available a rapid (∼ 1 week) Target of Opportunity mode for GW follow-up; (ii) include observations of the High Latitude Time-Domain survey footprint in at least two filters [...]; (iii) operate in synergy with Rubin Observatory

Nandini Hazra & Marica's group

Vera Rubin Observatory and Einstein Telescope: kilonova observation strategies to understand ET detector design

LSST has profoundly changed the TDA infrastructure

Discovery Engine

10M alerts/night

Community Brokers

target observation managers

the astronomy discovery chain

Pitt-Google

Broker

BABAMUL

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

Photometric Classification of transients

highest participation of any astronomical Kaggle challenges

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

Rubin will see ~1000 SN every night!

Credit: Alex Gagliano  IAIFI fellow MIT/CfA

Deep Drilling Fields

Kaggle PLAsTiCC challenge

AVOCADO classifier

https://arxiv.org/abs/1907.04690

Deep Drilling Fields

Kaggle PLAsTiCC challenge

AVOCADO classifier

https://arxiv.org/abs/1907.04690

Wide Fast Deep

Willow Fox Fortino

UDel grad student

When they go high, we go low

Classification power vs spectral resolution for SNe subtypes

 

Neural Network

classifier architectures:

- transformers
- CNNs

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

Rubin Operations Research Inclusion team

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

slide: Leanne Guy

 

how to get involved

join a Rubin LSST Science Collaborations

8 teams

>1500 members

>2000 affiliations

5 continents

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

We aspire to be an inclusive, equitable, and ultimately just group and we are working with renewed vigor in the wake of the recent event that exposed inequity and racism in our society to turning this aspiration into action.

No commitment required for basic membership

No data rights required (being a member of an SC does not confer data rights

join a Rubin LSST Science Collaborations

Will Clarkson

SC coordinator

become a DP0 delegate

Rubin Community Science Team lead: Melissa Graham 

 

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

join the Community forum

 

 

Rubin Community Forum (Community.lsst.org) is available to everyone, and the posting of any and all Rubin/LSST-related questions is encouraged.

stay up to date with ls.st/dates

 

 

federica bianco - fbianco@udel.edu

thank you!

 

University of Delaware

Department of Physics and Astronomy

 

Biden School of Public Policy and Administration

Data  Science Institute

@fedhere

federica bianco

Rubin Construction Deputy Project Scientist

fbianco@udel.edu

FEET24

By federica bianco

FEET24

KN perspective detection with the Vera C. Rubin Observatory

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