Think 2019 / DOC ID  / © 2019 IBM Corporation

Quantum Computing for Classical Developers
James Weaver
Quantum Developer Advocate
@JavaFXpert

Guided instruction and exercises: learnqiskit.org

slides.com/javafxpert/qc4cd

These web-based slides:

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Performance is based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput or performance that any user will experience will vary depending upon many factors, including considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the user’s job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed. Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve results similar to those stated here.

 

Think 2019 / DOC ID / © 2019 IBM Corporation

About Presenter James Weaver

IBM Quantum Developer Advocate

 

Author of several Java/JavaFX/RaspPi books

 

Java Champion, JavaOne Rockstar, plays well with others, etc :-)

 

james.weaver@ibm.com
JavaFXpert.com

CulturedEar.com

Concepts we'll address today

Introduction to quantum computing

Axioms of quantum mechanics (with cats)

  • Superposition principle
  • Measurement
  • Unitary evolution
  • Also: Entangling cats

Developing quantum computing applications

Demonstration of some quantum algorithms

Class discussion and suggestions for next steps in learning

 

History repeating itself

Massive hardware, limited bits, software infancy

Quantum computers make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data.

IBM Announces Q System One at CES 2019

Feasible on classical computers

Feasible on quantum computers

Solutions to problems

Why use a quantum computer?

Some problems may be solved exponentially faster

“Nature isn't classical, dammit, and if you want to make a simulation of nature, you'd better make it quantum mechanical, and by golly it's a wonderful problem, because it doesn't look so easy.”

Simulating nature

complex chemical reactions, for example

Dr. Richard Feynman, 1981

“If you start factoring 10-digit numbers then it’s going to start getting scary”

Breaking RSA crypto

someday maybe, using Shor's algorithm, formulated in 1994

Dr. Peter Shor, 2013

“Programming a quantum computer is particularly interesting since there are multiple things happening in the same hardware simultaneously.  One needs to think like both a theoretical physicist and a computer scientist.”

Quickly searching unsorted data

using Grover's algorithm

Dr. Lov Grover, 2002

Near-term quantum computing domains

Machine Learning

Optimization

Chemistry

Finance

Concepts we'll address today

Introduction to quantum computing

Axioms of quantum mechanics (with cats)

  • Superposition principle
  • Measurement
  • Unitary evolution
  • Also: Entangling cats

Developing quantum computing applications

Demonstration of some quantum algorithms

Class discussion and suggestions for next steps in learning

Axioms of Quantum Mechanics

\vert\space\space\space\rangle

featuring grumpy cat (or is it grumpy ket)? 

My microscopic cat is often grumpy

\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle

sometimes he is actually happy

but I've never observed him in-between those states

Axiom 1: Superposition principle

my cat can be in any combination of grumpy and happy

\vert\space\space\space\rangle
= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
= \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}
= \begin{bmatrix} \sqrt{\frac{1}{3}} \\ \sqrt{\frac{2}{3}} \end{bmatrix}
\sqrt{\frac{1}{3}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
+
\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle

Representing quantum states

geometrically, ket notation, and vectors

\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle

Axiom 2: Unitary evolution

gates modeled as matrices

X

\begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \end{bmatrix} \cdot \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}

NOT gate (Pauli/X, bit-flip)

\vert\space\space\space\rangle

Hadamard gate

great for putting cats in equal superpositions

H

\begin{bmatrix} \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} & \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} & -\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \end{bmatrix} \cdot \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \end{bmatrix}

Hadamard gate

\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
+
\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\sqrt{\frac{1}{3}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
+
\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}}
\vert\space\space\space\rangle

Axiom 3: Measurement

probability is amplitude squared

When observed there is a:

\frac{1}{3}
\frac{2}{3}

probability of being grumpy

probability of being happy

Multiple cats

\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
=
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}
\otimes \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}

Composite quantum states

= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}

Multiple cats

\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
=
= \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}
= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}
\otimes \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}

Composite quantum states

\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle

Multiple cats

\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
=
= \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}
= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}
\otimes \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}

Composite quantum states

\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\rangle
\otimes \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
+

Superpositions, evolution & measurement

putting the three axioms together

\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
+
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\sqrt{\frac{1}{6}}
+
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\sqrt{\frac{1}{3}}
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle

quantum gates

quantum gates

measure

\downarrow
\downarrow
\downarrow
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle

with 1/2 probability

with 1/6 probability

with 1/3 probability

\vert\space\space\space\rangle

Quantum entanglement

spooky actions at a distance

H

Hadamard gate

\vert\space\space\space\rangle

CNOT gate

\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
+
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}
+
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\vert\space\space\space\space\space\space\space\rangle
\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}

Mars - ESA

Alice Cat

Bob Cat

Venus - NASA

\vert\space\space\rangle
=
\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix} \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} & \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} & -\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \end{bmatrix}

 1972 album by rock band known as ELP

 1935 album by rock band known as EPR ;-)

Track Listing

  1. Spooky (Actions at a Distance)
  2. The Copenhagen Misinterpretation
  3. Hidden Variables
  4. Local Realism
  5. God Doesn't Play Dice with the Universe
  6. Entangled up in Blue
  7. Alice and Bob share a Qubit
  8. The Bell Inequality
  9. The Moon Exists (Even When I'm Not Looking)

 

Testing Bell's theorem:

No physical theory of local hidden variables can ever reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics

Concepts we'll address today

Introduction to quantum computing

Axioms of quantum mechanics (with cats)

  • Superposition principle
  • Measurement
  • Unitary evolution
  • Also: Entangling cats

Developing quantum computing applications

Demonstration of some quantum algorithms

Class discussion and suggestions for next steps in learning

 

IBM Q Experience (IQX, in Beta)

IBM Q Experience measurement results

IBM Q Experience Qiskit notebooks

Qiskit open source quantum computing framework

Developing quantum apps

Qiskit Terra foundational stack

Developing quantum apps

Sample output:

{'00': 496, '11': 528}

Expresses circuit:

Minimal Qiskit example

Put your paddle into a quantum state that collapses when the ball is near

Developed at a Qiskit Camp Hackathon by Junye Huang, Anastasia Jeffery, Jarrod Reilly, and James Weaver

Example app: Quantum Pong (uses Qiskit and Pygame libraries)

Qiskit Aqua quantum algorithms

Developing quantum apps

Near-term quantum computing domains

Machine Learning

Optimization

Chemistry

Finance

Example Aqua algorithm: Grover search for boolean satisfiability

Throwing a party while avoiding the drama

What are amiable combinations of people to invite?

  • Alice and Bob are in a relationship
  • Carol and David are as well
  • Alice and David aren't speaking
((A and B) or (C and D)) and 
not (A and D)

Quantum parallelism

what is it, really?

Double-slit experiment

constructive and destructive interference

Text

Choreographing interference

to increase the chance of getting the right answer

Text

Measuring quantum state

Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy analogy

Deep Thought after 7.5 million years of calculation

Example Aqua algorithm: Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE)

Solves combinatorial optimization problems such as Traveling Salesman (TSP)

Now it's your turn to play! Try out the self-faced workshop including guided exercises and Qiskit tutorial notebooks at learnqiskit.org

Hands-on Qiskit workshop

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Think 2019 / DOC ID / February 14, 2019 / © 2019 IBM Corporation

Performance data contained herein was generally obtained in a controlled, isolated environments. Customer examples are presented as illustrations of how those customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved. Actual performance, cost, savings or other results in other operating environments may vary.

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Notices and disclaimers continued

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Think 2019 / DOC ID / February 14, 2019 / © 2019 IBM Corporation

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Think 2019 / DOC ID / February 14, 2019 / © 2019 IBM Corporation

Quantum Computing for Classical Developers
James Weaver
Quantum Developer Advocate
@JavaFXpert

Guided instruction and exercises: learnqiskit.org

Quantum Computing for Classical Developers

By javafxpert

Quantum Computing for Classical Developers

Quantum computing for classical developers presentation

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