Majid Hajian

Hardware Connectivity

on

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Majid Hajian

Things in

 

 

Era

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<ME />

import HelloWorld from "@/components/HelloWorld.component";
export default {
  name: "whoAmI",
  data: {
      me: {
        name: "Majid Hajian",
        location: "Oslo, Norway",
        description: ```
        	Passionate Software engineer, 
	        Community Leader, Author and international Speaker
         ```,
        main: "Web, Javascripter, Flutter/Dart, IoT",
        homepage: "https://www.majidhajian.com",
        socials: {
          twitter: "https://www.twitter.com/mhadaily",
          github: "https://www.github.com/mhadaily"
        },
        books: {
          "Progressive Web App with Angular": {
             version: "1.0.0", 
             publishedBy: "Apress", 
             foundOn: "www.pwawithangular.com",
          }
        },
        author: {
          packtpub: "PWA development, 7 hours video course",
          Udemy: "PWA development, 7 hours video course"
        }
        founder: "Softiware As (www.Softiware.com)"
        devDependencies: {
          tea: "green", mac: "10.14+",
        },
        engines: {
          VueJsOslo: "Orginizer", MobileEraConference: "Orginizer",
          ngVikingsConference: "Orginizer", 
          MobileMeetupOslo:"Co-Orginizer",AngularOslo: "Co-Orginizer",
          FlutterDartOslo: "Co-Orginizer",Framsia: "Co-Orginizer",          
        }};} 
     };

@mhadaily

The Talk's Aim

To show beyond the web and unleash the power of hardware connectivity and internet of things on the progressive web

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SIMPLIFIED

What will be explored

WebBluetooth
WebUSB
WebNFC
Progressive Web Apps
Internt of Things (WebThings)

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Reliable

Fast

Engaging

Secure

Progressively

Enhancement

Native-like

User Experince

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Service Worker 

Web App Manifest

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Project Fugu

Delicious if prepared correctly, deadly if not

 

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 Gartner says that by 2020

there will be

over 26 billion connected devices

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Web of Things

The Web of Things connects real-world objects to the World Wide Web.

Web Bluetooth

Classic Bluetooth

Bluetooth Smart

Bluetooth Low Energy
Bluetooth4, 5

BLE, Bluetooth LE

sucks

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Central

Peripheral

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Central

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Generic attribute profile

GATT

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Central

Peripheral

Client

Server

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Server

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Server

Service

Service

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Server

Service

Service

Characteristic

Characteristic

Characteristic

Characteristic

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Server

Service

Service

Characteristic

properties

Value

Characteristic

properties

Value

Characteristic

properties

Value

Characteristic

properties

Value

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Server

Service

Service

Characteristic

properties

Value

Characteristic

properties

Value

Characteristic

properties

Value

Characteristic

properties

Value

Services and characteristics are identified by 16 or 128 bit UUIDs.  

characteristics have different properties such as read, write, write without response, notify, indicate and ...

Values are just an array of bytes

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Before going forward...

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requestHTMLButton.addEventListener('click', async function() {

    // Logic
  
});

User Interaction

HTTPS Only

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  const options = {
    filters: [
      { namePrefix: 'Polar' }
    ],
  };
  const device = await navigator.bluetooth.requestDevice(options);
  const server = await device.gatt.connect();
  const service = await server.getPrimaryService(SERVICE);
  const character = await service.getCharacteristic(CHARACTERISTIC);
  
  character.oncharacteristicvaluechanged = () => {
    const value = event.target.value;
    const currentHeartRate = parseHeartRate(value);
    // Update UI or do your logic 
  };

  await character.startNotifications();
  

Request the device

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  const options = {
    filters: [
      { namePrefix: 'Polar' }
    ],
  };
  const device = await navigator.bluetooth.requestDevice(options);
  const server = await device.gatt.connect();
  const service = await server.getPrimaryService(SERVICE);
  const character = await service.getCharacteristic(CHARACTERISTIC);
  
  character.oncharacteristicvaluechanged = () => {
    const value = event.target.value;
    const currentHeartRate = parseHeartRate(value);
    // Update UI or do your logic 
  };

  await character.startNotifications();
  

Request the device

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  const options = {
    filters: [
      { namePrefix: 'Polar' }
    ],
  };
  const device = await navigator.bluetooth.requestDevice(options);
  const server = await device.gatt.connect();
  const service = await server.getPrimaryService(SERVICE);
  const character = await service.getCharacteristic(CHARACTERISTIC);
  
  character.oncharacteristicvaluechanged = () => {
    const value = event.target.value;
    const currentHeartRate = parseHeartRate(value);
    // Update UI or do your logic 
  };

  await character.startNotifications();
  

Connect to Gatt

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  const options = {
    filters: [
      { namePrefix: 'Polar' }
    ],
  };
  const device = await navigator.bluetooth.requestDevice(options);
  const server = await device.gatt.connect();
  const service = await server.getPrimaryService(SERVICE);
  const character = await service.getCharacteristic(CHARACTERISTIC);
  
  character.oncharacteristicvaluechanged = () => {
    const value = event.target.value;
    const currentHeartRate = parseHeartRate(value);
    // Update UI or do your logic 
  };

  await character.startNotifications();
  

Get a Service

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  const options = {
    filters: [
      { namePrefix: 'Polar' }
    ],
  };
  const device = await navigator.bluetooth.requestDevice(options);
  const server = await device.gatt.connect();
  const service = await server.getPrimaryService(SERVICE);
  const character = await service.getCharacteristic(CHARACTERISTIC);
  
  character.oncharacteristicvaluechanged = () => {
    const value = event.target.value;
    const currentHeartRate = parseHeartRate(value);
    // Update UI or do your logic 
  };

  await character.startNotifications();
  

Get a Characteristic

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  const options = {
    filters: [
      { namePrefix: 'Polar' }
    ],
  };
  const device = await navigator.bluetooth.requestDevice(options);
  const server = await device.gatt.connect();
  const service = await server.getPrimaryService(SERVICE);
  const character = await service.getCharacteristic(CHARACTERISTIC);
  
  character.oncharacteristicvaluechanged = () => {
    const value = event.target.value;
    const currentHeartRate = parseHeartRate(value);
    // Update UI or do your logic 
  };

  await character.startNotifications();
  

Start Notifying 

Listen to value change and read value

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  const characteristic = await service.getCharacteristic(`heart_rate_control_point`);
  
  console.log('Writing Heart Rate Control Point Characteristic...');

  // Writing 1 is the signal to reset energy expended.
  const resetEnergyExpended = Uint8Array.of(1);
  await characteristic.writeValue(resetEnergyExpended);
  
  const characteristic = await service.getCharacteristic(`battery_level`);
  

  const value = await characteristic.readValue();
  let batteryLevel = value.getUint8(0);
  console.log('> Battery Level is ' + batteryLevel + '%');
  

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// Discovery options match any devices advertising:
// . The standard heart rate service.
// . Both 16-bit service IDs 0x1802 and 0x1803.
// . A proprietary 128-bit UUID service c48e6067-5295-48d3-8d5c-0395f61792b1.
// . Devices with name "ExampleName".
// . Devices with name starting with "Prefix".
//
// And enables access to the battery service if devices
// include it, even if devices do not advertise that service.

const options = {
  filters: [
    {services: ['heart_rate']},
    {services: [0x1802, 0x1803]},
    {services: ['c48e6067-5295-48d3-8d5c-0395f61792b1']},
    {name: 'Polar H7'},
    {namePrefix: 'Polar'}
  ],
  optionalServices: ['battery_service']
}

const options2 = {
    acceptAllDevices: true, 
}

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USB

WEB

The WebUSB API provides a way to safely expose USB device services to the web.

 

 

- webUSB spec

https://wicg.github.io/webusb/

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It provides an API familiar to developers who have used existing native USB libraries and exposes the device interfaces defined by existing specifications.

 

- webUSB spec

https://wicg.github.io/webusb/

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Cross-platform Javascript SDKs

Hot patch easily

rapidly prototype

Combine with other web tech

Fast to Make

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HTTPS only

No Native Code Needed

User Gesture required

FACTS

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Device Descriptor 

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Device Descriptor 

Config Descriptor

Config Descriptor

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Device Descriptor 

Config Descriptor

Config Descriptor

Interface Descriptor

Interface Descriptor

Interface Descriptor

Interface Descriptor

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Device Descriptor 

Config Descriptor

Config Descriptor

Interface Descriptor

Interface Descriptor

Interface Descriptor

Interface Descriptor

Endpoint Descriptor

Endpoint Descriptor

Endpoint Descriptor

Endpoint Descriptor

Endpoint Descriptor

Endpoint Descriptor

Endpoint Descriptor

Endpoint Descriptor

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requestHTMLButton.addEventListener('click', async function() {

    // Logic
  
});

User Interaction

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 const options = {
    filters: [{ vendorId: 0x22b8, productId: 0x2e76 }]
  };
  const _device = await navigator.usb.requestDevice(options);
  const device = await _device.open();
  await device.selectConfiguration(0);
  await device.claimInterface(0);

  // Transfer Out ->
  // Transfer In <-

Device Descriptor 

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 const options = {
    filters: [{ vendorId: 0x22b8, productId: 0x2e76 }]
  };
  const _device = await navigator.usb.requestDevice(options);
  const device = await _device.open();
  await device.selectConfiguration(0);
  await device.claimInterface(0);

  // Transfer Out ->
  // Transfer In <-

Device Descriptor 

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 const options = {
    filters: [{ vendorId: 0x22b8, productId: 0x2e76 }]
  };
  const _device = await navigator.usb.requestDevice(options);
  const device = await _device.open();
  await device.selectConfiguration(0);
  await device.claimInterface(0);

  // Transfer Out ->
  // Transfer In <-

Device Descriptor 

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 const options = {
    filters: [{ vendorId: 0x22b8, productId: 0x2e76 }]
  };
  const _device = await navigator.usb.requestDevice(options);
  const device = await _device.open();
  await device.selectConfiguration(0);
  await device.claimInterface(0);

  // Transfer Out ->
  // Transfer In <-

Device Descriptor 

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    /*
        vendorId
        productId
        classCode
        subclassCode
        protocolCode
        serialNumber
    */

 const options = {
    filters: [
       { 
            vendorId: 0x22b8, 
            productId: 0x2e76, 
            serialNumber: 'ZY223SD2TP' 
       }
    ]
  };

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Transfer Types

INTERRUPT 
CONTROL
IN
OUT

Non-periodic, small,

device "initiated communication

-> small amount of time sensitive data

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  // Out
  const endpointNumber = 1;
  const data = 'Cool';
  await device.transferOut(endpointNumber, data);
  // In
  const length = 8;
  await device.trasnferIn(endpointNumber, length);

Interrupt transfer

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Transfer Types

INTERRUPT 
CONTROL
IN
OUT

Non-periodic, small,

device "initiated communication

-> small amount of time sensitive data

Good for small configuration commands

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  const data = 'VueJs';
  const length = 64;
  const setup = {
    requestType: 'class', // standard, vendor
    recipient: 'interface', // device, endpoint, other
    request: 0x22, // vendor-specefic command
    value: 0x01, // vendor-specefic request
    index: 0x02 // endpoint
  };
  // out
  await device.controlTransferOut(setup, data);
  // in
  await device.controlTransferIn(setup, length);

Control transfer

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Transfer Types

INTERRUPT 
CONTROL
ISOCHRONOUS
IN
OUT

Good for small configuration commands

Non-periodic, small,

device "initiated communication

-> small amount of time sensitive data

used for streams of data like video and sound

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  // Isochronous transfer
  const _data = ArrayBuffer(8);
  const endpointNumber = 1;
  const length = 64;
  const packetLength = 8;
  // out
  await device.isochronousTransferOut(endpointNumber, _data, length);

  // in
  await device.isochronousTransferIn(endpointNumber, packetLength);

Isochronous transfer

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System information / Chrome device info 

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Web NFC

low-level API allowing Web applications to access and exchange the data with the Near-Field Communication devices, such as NFC tags.

chrome://flags

"Experimental Web Platform Features"

"Web NFC"

Your Mobile should support NFC

Chrome

Android

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const reader = new NFCReader();

reader.onreading = event => {
  for (let record of event.message.records) {
    // ...    
  }
};

const ctr = new AbortController;
reader.scan({ signal: ctr.signal });

New Proposed API

 

This api has changed as of November 8, 2019, Check out my recent Presentation to find out more

const reader = new NFCReader();

reader.onreading = event => {
  for (let record of event.message.records) {
    if (record.recordType === "json") {
      console.log(`JSON: ${record.toJSON().myProperty}`);
    }

    if (record.recordType === "opaque" && record.mediaType.startsWith('image/')) {
        const blob = new Blob([record.toArrayBuffer()], {type: record.mediaType});
        const img = document.createElement("img");
        img.src = URL.createObjectURL(blob);
        img.onload = () => window.URL.revokeObjectURL(this.src);
        document.body.appendChild(img);
      }
    }
  }
};

const ctr = new AbortController;
reader.scan({ signal: ctr.signal });

This API has changed as of November 8, 2019, Check out my recent presentation to find out more

const writer = new NFCWriter();
writer.push({
  records: [
    {
      recordType: "json",
      mediaType: "application/json",
      data: {
        name: "Benny Jensen",
        title: "Banker"
      }
    },
    {
      recordType: "json",
      mediaType: "application/json",
      data: {
        name: "Zoey Braun",
        title: "Engineer"
      }
    }]
}, {target: "tag", ignoreRead: false});

This API has changed as of November 8, 2019, Check out my recent presentation to find out more

mhadaily

Slides and link to source code

bit.ly/hw-pwa

 

Majid Hajian

mhadaily

Hardware Connectivity On PWA

By Majid Hajian

Hardware Connectivity On PWA

In daily basis where billions of billion devices are connected to the internet, browsers can actually take control Things like lightbulbs, robots, printers, NFC tags, toys, drones, and many more Things via web standard APIs such as WebBluetooth, WebUSB, WebNFC, Shape Detection API and etc. How about connecting to IoT gateway which supports Wifi via BLE ?! On the other hand, Progressive web apps open a new era to build web apps that work offline and resemble native apps. PWAs are installable too, therefore, your solution to controlling Things in the real world can be written once for web and reuse everywhere. In this session, I am going through some of the web capabilities to connect devices into a progressive web app and demonstrate how the web, eventually, could go beyond the browsers. There will be lots of demos such as Connect to IoT gateway via BLE over Wifi, Drone controller, NFC reader, Android ADB connector to Web and more.

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