APA Style: Citations

Tim Miller - HSU Library

CC BY - 2018

(Nel, 2005, p. 805)

With the basic information, the reader can find the full citation at the end of the paper:

author's namedate of publicationpage number

In-line Citation


According to Nel (2005), there are many ways to cite authors (p. 805).

Reference List Entry

Full citation:

With the following information, the reader should be able to find the article on her own:

  • author's name
  • date of publication
  • article title
  • journal title 
  • volume & issue 
  • page number
  • DOI/URL (e-articles)
  • Nel, A.
  • May 6, 2005
  • Air pollution-related illness: Effects of particles
  • Science
  • 308 (5723)
  • 804-806
  • http://www.jstor.org/stable/3841924


Works Cited, Bibliography, Literature Cited, Cited References

Nel, A. (2005). Air pollution-related illness: Effects of particles. Science, 308, 804-806.


Reference List Entry


  • Name: Nel, A.
  • Date of publication: May 6, 2005
  • Title of article: Air pollution-related illness: Effects of particles
  • Title of Journal: Science
  • Volume & Issue: 308 (5723)
  • Page numbers: 804-806

Nel, A. (2005). Air pollution-related illness: Effects of particles. Science, 308, 804-806.


DOI - Digital Object Identifier

  • unique alphanumeric code used to identify and locate an electronic article:


URL - Uniform Resource Locator

  • address for a site or page on the worldwide web:            

Electronic Articles

Each style has its own rules about when to include or not include a DOI or URL. 


  • Include DOI/URL if different from print version
    • do not include name of database or date retrieved
  • Often, your instructor may require a DOI or URL regardless

DOI is always preferred over URL

Only use stable/permanent URL

Presentations & Video

Cite your sources the same as with a paper:

  • In-text citation on the slide/clip
  • Full reference citation at the end of the presentation/video

Example: in-text

Example: reference

How often should you cite?

  • APA - every time you use an idea from another source
  • Within the same paragraph
    • First mention - full citation (name, year, pg #)
    • Subsequent mentions - name only 
    • Only for the same work by the same author
      • if there are multiple works by the author in the paragraph, each citation should be complete.

In-text Citations

Long Quotations - example

  • For longer quotations, place the quotation in a block, indented 1/2" 
  • Double line-spacing
  • Citation at end

1/2" or 1"

  • New page (insert page break)
  • Title:
    • References
  • Hanging indent - 1/2" 
  • Order:
    • Alphabetized - main author last name

Reference List

References - example


Hanging Indent

References - Hanging Indent

Google Docs

References - Hanging Indent

MS Word


APA Citations

By Tim Miller

APA Citations

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