Deep Perception

(for manipulation)

Part 2

MIT 6.4210/2

Robotic Manipulation

Fall 2022, Lecture 12

Follow live at https://slides.com/d/4wyOGn8/live

(or later at https://slides.com/russtedrake/fall22-lec12)

"Procedural dishes"!

"Procedural dishes"

SE(3) pose is difficult to generalize across a category

So how do we even specify the task?

What's the cost function?

(Images of mugs on the rack?)

H. Wang, S. Sridhar, J. Huang, J. Valentin, S. Song, and L. J. Guibas, “Normalized Object Coordinate Space for Category-Level 6D Object Pose and Size Estimation,” in 2019 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), Long Beach, CA, USA, Jun. 2019, pp. 2637–2646, doi: 10.1109/CVPR.2019.00275.

Category-level Pose Estimation

"NOCS"

Bingham distribution (over unit quaternions)

image from Jared Glover's PhD thesis, 2014

in 2D:

Bingham distribution (over unit quaternions)

from Jared Glover's PhD thesis, 2014

3D Keypoints provide rich, class-general semantics

Constraints & Cost on Keypoints

... and robust performance in practice

Lucas Manuelli*, Wei Gao*, Peter R. Florence and Russ Tedrake. kPAM: KeyPoint Affordances for Category Level Manipulation. ISRR 2019

Keypoints are not a sufficient representation

Keypoint "semantics" + dense 3D geometry 

https://keypointnet.github.io/

https://nanonets.com/blog/human-pose-estimation-2d-guide/

Typically don't predict keypoints directly; predict a "heatmap" instead

Dense reconstruction + annotation GUI

Example: Keypoints for boxes

box example figures from Greg Izatt

Procedural synthetic training data

Mask-RCNN

Sample of results

(shoes on rack)

# train objects 10
# test objects 20
# trials 100
placed on shelf 98%
heel error (cm) 1.09 ± (1.29)
toe error (cm) 4.34 ± (3.05)

+ shape completion network (kPAM-SC)

to include collision-avoidance constraints

+ force control?

So far, keypoints are geometric and semantic 

(mug handle, front toe of shoe), but required human labels

If we forgo semantics, can we self-supervise?

Z. Qin, K. Fang, Y. Zhu, L. Fei-Fei, and S. Savarese, “KETO: Learning Keypoint Representations for Tool Manipulation,” in 2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), May 2020, pp. 7278–7285

Dense Object Nets

Core technology: dense correspondences

(built on Schmidt, Newcombe, Fox, RA-L 2017)

Peter R. Florence*, Lucas Manuelli*, and Russ Tedrake. Dense Object Nets: Learning Dense Visual Object Descriptors By and For Robotic Manipulation. CoRL, 2018.

Dense Object Nets

dense 3D reconstruction

+ pixelwise contrastive loss

Good training/loss functions sharpen correspondences

Descriptors as dense self-supervised keypoints

Correspondences alone are sufficient to specify some tasks

Dense descriptors for boxes

Transporter Nets

Andy Zeng et al.  Transporter Networks: Rearranging the Visual World for Robotic Manipulation, CoRL, 2020

Lecture 12: Deep Perception (part 2)

By russtedrake

Lecture 12: Deep Perception (part 2)

MIT Robotic Manipulation Fall 2022 http://manipulation.csail.mit.edu

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